0
TECHNICAL PAPERS: Joint/Whole Body

Measuring Alignment of the Hindfoot

[+] Author and Article Information
Gabrielle J. M. Tuijthof

Man-Machine Systems and Control, Department of Design, Engineering, and Production, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD, The NetherlandsDepartment of Orthopaedics G4, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Just L. Herder, Peter V. Pistecky

Man-Machine Systems and Control, Department of Design, Engineering, and Production, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD, The Netherlands

Peter E. Scholten

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Klein Rosendael Clinic, Rosendaalselaan 30, 6891 DG, Rozendaal, The Netherlands

C. Niek van Dijk

Department of Orthopaedics G4, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

J Biomech Eng 126(3), 357-362 (Jun 24, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1762897 History: Received June 26, 2003; Revised October 27, 2003; Online June 24, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Tuijthof, G. J. M., 2003, “Technical improvement of arthroscopic techniques,” Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
Grice,  D. S., 1952, “An extra-articular arthrodesis of the subastragalar joint for correction of paralytic flat feet in children,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol., 34(4), pp. 927–940.
Seymour,  N., and Evans,  D. K., 1968, “A modification of the Grice subtalar arthrodesis,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Br., 50(2), pp. 372–375.
Engstrom,  A., Eriskon,  U., and Hjelmstedt,  A., 1974, “The results of extra-articular subtalar arthrodesis according to the Green-Grice method in cerebral palsy,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 45, pp. 945–951.
Gross,  R. H., 1976, “A clinical study of the Batchelor subtalar arthrodesis,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol., 58(3), pp. 343–349.
Moreland,  J. R., and Westin,  G. W., 1986, “Further experience with Grice subtalar arthrodesis,” Clin. Orthop., 207, pp. 113–121.
Russotti,  G. M., Cass,  J. R., and Johnson,  K. A., 1988, “Isolated talocalcaneal arthrodesis,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol., 70(10), pp. 1472–1478.
Mann,  R. A., Beaman,  D. N., and Horton,  G. A., 1998, “Isolated subtalar arthrodesis,” Foot Ankle Int., 19(8), pp. 511–519.
Easley,  M. E., Trnka,  H.-J., Schon,  L. C., and Nade,  S., 2000, “Isolated subtalar arthrodesis,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol., 82(5), pp. 613–624.
McClay,  I., and Bray,  J., 1996, “The subtalar angle: a proposed measure of rearfoot structure,” Foot Ankle Int., 17(8), pp. 499–502.
Flemister,  A. S., Infante,  A. F., Sanders,  R. W., and Walling,  A. K., 2000, “Subtalar arthrodesis for complications of intra-articular calcaneal fractures,” Foot Ankle Int., 21(5), pp. 392–399.
Lian G., 1993, “Hindfoot arthrodesis,” Current practice in foot and ankle surgery, Pfeffer, G. B., Frey, C., eds., McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, pp. 262–284.
Mann, R. A., 1993, “Arthrodesis of the foot and ankle,” Surgery of the foot and ankle, Mann, R. A., Coughlin, M. J., eds., Mosby, St. Louis, pp. 673–713.
Scranton,  P. E., 1991, “Results of arthrodesis of the tarsus: talocalcaneal, midtarsal, and subtalar joints,” Foot Ankle, , 12(3), pp. 156–164.
Astrom,  M., and Arvidson,  T., 1995, “Alignment and joint motion in the normal foot,” J. Orthop. Phys. Ther., 22(5), pp. 216–222.
Brown, D. N., 1983 Nov. 1983, “Method and apparatus for determining the neutral axis of a foot or the like,” Brown, D. N., editor, United States of America patent US4416292.
Pearce, R. F., 1997 Nov. 1997, “Foot joint position determination,” Pearce, R. F., editor, United States of America patent GB2312754.
Kovaleski,  J. E., Gurchiek,  L. R., Heitman,  R. J., Hollis,  J. M., and Pearsall,  A. W., 1999, “Instrumented measurement of anteroposterior and inversion-eversion laxity of the normal ankle joint complex,” Foot Ankle Int., 20(12), pp. 808–814.
Alexander,  R., Battye,  C., Goodwill,  C., and Walsh,  J., 1982, “The ankle and subtalar joints,” Clin. Rheum. Dis., 8(3), pp. 703–711.
Ball,  P., and Johnson,  G., 1996, “Technique for the measurement of hindfoot inversion and eversion and its use to study a normal population,” Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 11(3), pp. 165–169.
Burton,  D. C., Olney,  B. W., and Horton,  G. A., 1998, “Late results of subtalar distraction fusion,” Foot Ankle Int., 19(4), pp. 197–202.
Isman,  R. E., and Inman,  V. T., 1969, “Anthropometric studies of the human foot and ankle,” Bull. Prosthet. Res., 10, pp. 97–129.
Parenteau,  C., Viano,  D., and Petit,  P., 1998, “Biomechanical properties of human cadaveric ankle-subtalar joints in quasi-static loading,” J. Biomech. Eng., 120(1), pp. 105–111.
Pearce,  T., and Buckley,  R., 1999, “Subtalar joint movement: clinical and computed tomography scan correlation,” Foot Ankle Int., 20(7), pp. 428–432.
Pierrynowski,  M., and Smith,  S., 1996, “Rear foot inversion/eversion during gait relative to the subtalar joint neutral position,” Foot Ankle Int., 17(7), pp. 406–412.
Siegler,  S., Chen,  J., and Schneck,  C., 1988, “The three-dimensional kinematics and flexibility characteristics of the human ankle and subtalar joints—Part I: Kinematics,” J. Biomech. Eng., 110(4), pp. 364–373.
Buckley,  R. E., and Hunt,  D. V., 1997, “Reliability of clinical measurement of subtalar joint movement,” Foot Ankle Int., 18(4), pp. 229–232.
Lattanza,  L., Gary,  G. W., and Kantner,  R. M., 1988, “Closed versus open kinematic chain measurement of subtalar joint eversion: implications for clinical practice,” J. Orthop. Phys. Ther., 9(9), pp. 310–314.
Sell,  K. E., Verity,  T. M., Worrell,  T. W., Pease,  B. J., and Wigglesworth,  J., 1994, “Two measurement techniques for assessing subtalar joint position: a reliability study,” J. Orthop. Phys. Ther., 19(3), pp. 162–167.
Wen,  D. Y., Puffer,  J. C., and Schmalzried,  T. P., 1997, “Lower extremity alignment and risk of overuse injuries in runners,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 29(10), pp. 1291–1298.
Ryf, C., Weymann, A., 1999, Range of motion—AO Neutral-0 method, 1 ed., Thieme, Stuttgart-New York.
Hamill,  J., Bates,  B. T., Knutzen,  K. M., and Kirkpatrick,  G. M., 1989, “Relationship between selected static and dynamic lower extremity measures,” Clin Biomech, 4(4), pp. 217–225.
Carr,  J. B., Hansen,  S. T., and Benirschke,  S. K., 1988, “Subtalar distraction bone block fusion for late complications of os calcis fractures,” Foot Ankle Int., 9(2), pp. 81–86.
Bednarz,  P. A., Beals,  T. C., and Manoli,  A., 1997, “Subtalar distraction bone block fusion: an assessment of outcome,” Foot Ankle Int., 18(12), pp. 785–791.
Amendola,  A., and Lammens,  P., 1996, “Subtalar arthrodesis using interposition iliac crest bone graft after calcaneal fracture,” Foot Ankle Int., 17(10), pp. 608–614.
Jurgens, H. W., Aune, I. A., and Pieper, U., 1990, International data on anthropometry, 1 ed., Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Dortmund.
Salvendy, G., 1997, Handbook of human factors and ergonomics, 2 ed., Wiley, New Delhi.
Molenbroek, J. F. M., 1994, Op maat gemaakt, menselijke maten voor het ontwerpen en beoordelen van gebruiksgoederen, 1 ed., Delftse Universitaire Pers, Delft.
Kamp, E. A., vd, 2001, “Standsbepaling van de calcaneus,” Technical Report (OCP-MMS), Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands (in Dutch).
Muller,  R., and Buttner,  P., 1994, “A critical discussion of intraclass correlation coefficients,” Stat. Med., 13(23–24), pp. 2465–2476.
Deyo,  R., Diehr,  P., and Patrick,  D., 1991, “Reproducibility and responsiveness of health status measures. Statistics and strategies for evaluation,” Control Clin. Trials, 12(4Suppl), pp. 142S–158S.
Almering, J. H. J., 1993, Analyze, 6 ed., Delft University Press, Delft.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Photograph of the posterior side of a person placed with her feet positioned at a fixed distance equal to the distance in the measurement system. The photographs were used to perform evaluation of Condition 3. The four markers on the calcaneus (A-D) determine the midline of the calcaneus (black bullets), and the four markers on the lower leg (E-H) determine the midline of the lower leg (white bullets). The smallest angle between the midlines determines the hindfoot angle. The measurement system palpates the indicated landmarks, as well. The calcaneal device indicates the calcaneal midline, and the lower leg device indicates the lower leg midline (Figs. 23).
Grahic Jump Location
Photograph of a person standing in the measurement system that consists of three parts: a platform, a lower leg device (with parallel lines indicator), and a calcaneal device (with a goniometric scale). The lower leg device and the calcaneal device can be interchanged between both the extremities, and they are limited to motion in the frontal plane.
Grahic Jump Location
A) Photograph of a person lying in prone position in the measurement system. B) The 0°-line of the goniometric scale attached to the calcaneal device is positioned parallel to the lower leg device, which determines the hindfoot angle on the goniometric scale, which has a resolution of 1°.
Grahic Jump Location
Results of the measured values of each subject’s foot (n=16) for all three conditions. The average values and standard deviations of the four testers are shown. Subject 1 is the first person that was measured; as it happened the subsequent persons had feet that were increasingly aligned in a varus position. The t-tests show that only two subjects had no significant difference between left and right side, whereas the other subjects had a difference of 1° up to 2° between left and right hindfoot angle.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic drawing from the posterior view of the calcaneus and talus to show the relation between the size of the bone graft, the width of the subtalar joint, and the correction angle.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In