Measuring Alignment of the Hindfoot

[+] Author and Article Information
Gabrielle J. M. Tuijthof

Man-Machine Systems and Control, Department of Design, Engineering, and Production, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD, The NetherlandsDepartment of Orthopaedics G4, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Just L. Herder, Peter V. Pistecky

Man-Machine Systems and Control, Department of Design, Engineering, and Production, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD, The Netherlands

Peter E. Scholten

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Klein Rosendael Clinic, Rosendaalselaan 30, 6891 DG, Rozendaal, The Netherlands

C. Niek van Dijk

Department of Orthopaedics G4, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

J Biomech Eng 126(3), 357-362 (Jun 24, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1762897 History: Received June 26, 2003; Revised October 27, 2003; Online June 24, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Grahic Jump Location
Photograph of the posterior side of a person placed with her feet positioned at a fixed distance equal to the distance in the measurement system. The photographs were used to perform evaluation of Condition 3. The four markers on the calcaneus (A-D) determine the midline of the calcaneus (black bullets), and the four markers on the lower leg (E-H) determine the midline of the lower leg (white bullets). The smallest angle between the midlines determines the hindfoot angle. The measurement system palpates the indicated landmarks, as well. The calcaneal device indicates the calcaneal midline, and the lower leg device indicates the lower leg midline (Figs. 23).
Grahic Jump Location
Photograph of a person standing in the measurement system that consists of three parts: a platform, a lower leg device (with parallel lines indicator), and a calcaneal device (with a goniometric scale). The lower leg device and the calcaneal device can be interchanged between both the extremities, and they are limited to motion in the frontal plane.
Grahic Jump Location
A) Photograph of a person lying in prone position in the measurement system. B) The 0°-line of the goniometric scale attached to the calcaneal device is positioned parallel to the lower leg device, which determines the hindfoot angle on the goniometric scale, which has a resolution of 1°.
Grahic Jump Location
Results of the measured values of each subject’s foot (n=16) for all three conditions. The average values and standard deviations of the four testers are shown. Subject 1 is the first person that was measured; as it happened the subsequent persons had feet that were increasingly aligned in a varus position. The t-tests show that only two subjects had no significant difference between left and right side, whereas the other subjects had a difference of 1° up to 2° between left and right hindfoot angle.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic drawing from the posterior view of the calcaneus and talus to show the relation between the size of the bone graft, the width of the subtalar joint, and the correction angle.



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