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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Joint/Whole Body

Effect of Fluid Boundary Conditions on Joint Contact Mechanics and Applications to the Modeling of Osteoarthritic Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Salvatore Federico, Guido La Rosa

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e Meccanica, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy

Walter Herzog, John Z. Wu

Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4

J Biomech Eng 126(2), 220-225 (May 04, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1691445 History: Received December 04, 2001; Revised October 01, 2003; Online May 04, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

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Setton,  L. A., Mow,  V. C., Muller,  F. J., Pita,  J. C., and Howell,  D. S., 1994, “Mechanical Properties of canine articular cartilage are significantly altered following transection of the anterior cruciate ligament,” J. Orthop. Res., 12(4), 451–463.
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Holmes,  M. H., 1986, “Finite Deformation of a Soft Tissue: Analysis of a Mixture Model in Uni-axial Compression,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 108, pp. 372–381.
Wu,  J. Z., and Herzog,  W., 2000, “Finite Element Simulation of Location- and Time-dependent Mechanical Behavior of Chondrocytes in Unconfined Compression Tests,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 28, pp. 318–330.
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Figures

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A typical mesh used in the FEM simulations: at the edges of the cartilage layers, pore pressure p (POR) was set to zero to allow fluid flow in the radial direction. Point A, for which the stress sharing was calculated in the first set of simulations, is indicated; the elements of the bone layer are shown in light gray.
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Magnified view of the contacting surfaces, on the scale of the individual mesh nodes. Only the nodes on the contacting surfaces are shown; the elements of the bone layer are shown in light gray.
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First set of simulations: time history of the sharing between elastic stress and fluid pressure at point A (indicated in Figure 1), for models SEAL and VRDP ; solid stress is always compressive and thus negative, while the fluid pressure is positive. While VRDP shows a relaxation that compares well to that seen in experiments, SEAL shows virtually no relaxation, and the stress is almost completely carried by the fluid phase throughout the simulated time.
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First set of simulations: pore pressure (POR) distribution at time t=10 s in models SEAL (a) and VRDP (b). At the end of the loading ramp (t=10 s), fluid flux is in the radial direction in both SEAL and VRDP models.
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First set of simulations: pore pressure (POR) distribution at time t=300 s in models SEAL (a) and VRDP (b). After 300 s, fluid flux is in the radial direction for SEAL , similar to what is seen at t=10 s. Fluid flux in VRDP has a strong component in the axial direction, caused by flow through the surface.
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Second set of simulations: contact pressure distribution at time t=1 s. In early OA tissue, peak contact pressures are smaller and contact areas are greater than those in healthy tissue. In contrast, higher peak pressures and smaller contact areas are predicted for the late OA tissue, compared to the normal tissue.
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Second set of simulations: contact pressure distribution at time t=500 s. Peak contact pressure in early OA cartilage is the lowest, while in the late OA tissue, peak contact pressure relaxes more than the normal and early OA tissue, and becomes similar to that of the normal tissue.

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