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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Effect of Forced Convection on the Skin Thermal Expression of Breast Cancer

[+] Author and Article Information
Lu Hu, Ashish Gupta, Jay P. Gore, Lisa X. Xu

School of Mechanical EngineeringDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USASchool of Life Sciences and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, P. R. China

J Biomech Eng 126(2), 204-211 (May 04, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1688779 History: Received May 10, 2003; Revised December 04, 2003; Online May 04, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Figures

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(a) Schematic of the symmetrical cross sectional plane of the breast (not to scale). (b) Geometry of the tunnel with relevant dimensions (not to scale). The tumor lies on the symmetrical plane.
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The grid system generated with GAMBIT
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(a) The velocity distribution along the symmetrical surface, (b) velocity vectors at the skin surface
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Convection heat transfer coefficient distribution (top view). The mirror image of the simulated quarter of a sphere is added for demonstration purpose.
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(a)–(e) Temperature distributions on the symmetrical cross sectional plane for all the cases. The air stream is flowing towards the positive x direction. (a) No tumor, (b) Tumor towards the upstream surface and 2 cm deep tumor, (c) Tumor towards the upstream surface and 5 cm deep, (d) Tumor towards the downstream surface and 2 cm deep tumor, (e) Tumor towards the downstream surface and 5 cm deep.
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(a)–(e) Top view of the temperature distributions on the skin surface for all the cases. The mirror image of the simulated quarter of a sphere is added for demonstration purpose. (a) No tumor, (b) Tumor towards the upstream surface and 2 cm deep tumor, (c) Tumor towards the upstream surface and 5 cm deep, (d) Tumor towards the downstream surface and 2 cm deep tumor, (e) Tumor towards the downstream surface and 5 cm deep.
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(a)–(d) Top view of the temperature differences after subtracting normal (Fig. 4(a) from the tumor cases (cases 1–4, Figs. 4(b)–(e). The mirror image of the simulated quarter of a sphere is added for demonstration purpose. (a) Tumor towards the upstream surface and 2 cm deep tumor, (b) Tumor towards the upstream surface and 5 cm deep, (c) Tumor towards the downstream surface and 2 cm deep tumor, (d) Tumor towards the downstream surface and 5 cm deep.
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(a)–(d) Top view of the temperature differences after subtracting normal (Fig. 6(a) from the tumor (cases 1–4) with vasoconstriction. The mirror image of the simulated quarter of a sphere is added for demonstration purpose. (a) Tumor towards the upstream surface and 2 cm deep tumor, (b) Tumor towards the upstream surface and 5 cm deep, (c) Tumor towards the downstream surface and 2 cm deep tumor, (d) Tumor towards the downstream surface and 5 cm deep.

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