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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Bone/Orthopedic

Effect of Plant Interaction on Wind-Induced Crop Motion

[+] Author and Article Information
O. Doaré

Département de mécanique, LadHyX, CNRS-École Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau, France

B. Moulia

UEPF—INRA, 86600 Lusignan, FRANCE

E. de Langre

Département de mécanique, LadHyX, CNRS-École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, FRANCE

J Biomech Eng 126(2), 146-151 (May 04, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1688773 History: Online May 04, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Finnigan,  J., 2000, “Turbulence in Plant Canopies,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 32, 519–571.
Finnigan,  J., 1979, “Turbulence in Waving Wheat,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 16, 181–211.
Flesh,  T. K., and Grant,  R. H., 1991, “The Translation of Turbulent Wind Energy to Individual Corn Plant Motion During Senescence,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 55, 161–177.
Farquhar,  T., Wood,  J. Z., and van Beem,  J., 2000, “The Kinematics of Wheat Struck by a Wind Gust,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 67, 496–502.
Jaffe,  M. J., and Forbes,  S., 1993, “Thigmomorphogenesis: The Effect of Mechanical Perturbation on Plants,” Plant Growth Regulation, 12(3), 313–324.
Coutand,  C., and Moulia,  B., 2000, “A Biomechanical Study of the Effect of a Controlled Bending on Tomato Stem Elongation: II Local Mechanical Analysis and Spatial Integration of the Mechanosensing,” J. Exp. Bot., 51(352), 1825–1842.
Farquhar, T., and Eggleton, C. D., 2000, “Pulsatile Flow Heightens Vertical Exchanges in a Wheat Canopy,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Plant Biomechanics Conference, Freiburg, Spatz, H. C. and Speck, Th. Eds.
Niklas,  K. J., and Speck,  T., 2001, “Evolutionary Trends in Safety Factors Against Wind-Induced Stem Failure,” Am. J. Bot., 88, 1266–1278.
Farquhar, T., Zhou, J., and Haslach, H., 2003, “A Possible Mechanism for Sensing Crop Canopy Ventilation,” Ch. 15, in Sensors and sensing in biology and engineering, ed. FG Barth, JAC Humprey, T Secomb, Springer Press, Wien/New York.
Flesch,  T. K., and Grant,  R. H., 1992a, “Corn Motion in the Wind During Senescence: I Motion Characteristics,” Agronomy Journal, 84, 742–747.
Flesh,  T. K., and Grant,  R. H., 1992b, “Corn Motion in the Wind During Senescence: II Effect of Dynamic Plant Characteristics,” Agronomy Journal, 84, 742–747.
Raupach,  M. R., Finnigan,  J. J., and Brunet,  Y., 1996, “Coherent Eddies and Turbulence in Vegetation Canopies: The Mixing-Layer Analogy,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 78, 351–382.
Farquhar,  T., and Meyer-Philips,  H., 2001, “Relative Safety Factors Against Global Buckling, Anchorage Rotation, and Tissue Rupture in Wheat,” J. Theor. Biol., 211, 55–65.
Gosse,  G., Lemaire,  G., Chartier,  M., and Balfourier,  F., 1988, “Structure of a Lucerne Population (Medicago Sativa L) and Dynamics of Stem Competition for Light During Regrowth,” J. Appl. Ecol., 25, 609–617.

Figures

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(a) Schematic view of the stem model, a straight rod of height h, with a point mass at the height hb, subjected to gravity and a restoring momentum from a torsional spring at the basis of the rod. (b) Schematic view of the stem interaction model. A spring is added on the rod, to simulate the foliage. Depending on the angles of two adjacent stems, they can be in contact or there can be a gap.
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Image sequence showing snapshots of the stem position. The dashed line indicates the height of which the maximum value of the green channel was searched. Only the green channel of the original RGB image is shown.
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Stem angular position as a function of time, experiment (solid line) and theory (dashed line)
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Biometric properties that vary with plant height (a), height of the center of gravity hb as a function of the stem height h; (○), experiments; ([[dashed_line]]), linear approximation hb=0.65h; (b), modal mass m as a function of the stem height h; (○), experiments; ([[dashed_line]]), cubic approximation m=8.5×10−3 (Kg⋅m−3)h3
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Dynamic properties, (a), frequency ωT as a function of the stem height h; (○), experiments; ([[dashed_line]]), approximation by ωT=3.4 Hz; (b), non-dimensional dissipation γ as a function of the stem height h; (○), experiments; ([[dashed_line]]), approximation by γ=0.34
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Snapshot of a contact between leaves
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Representative evolution of stem positions in a contact experiment as function of time. Contact occurs over a period of duration duration Tc.
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Instantaneous shape of the field behind the wind gust. For X>0 the wind is uniform (μ0=0.6) and for X<0 there is no wind (μ0=0). The variation of θ as function of X is plotted and the crop canopy for h=0.4 m and d=0.05 m is sketched; (a), no interaction between stems, κ=0; (b), interactions between stems, κ=3.8; stems in contact are in bold.
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Transfer function between force and response as function of the wavenumber α for κ=3.8, v=5.88,μ0=0.3; (–), fc defined by equation (11); ([[dashed_line]]), fc=0

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