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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Determinants of Left Ventricular Shape Change During Filling

[+] Author and Article Information
Jeffrey W. Holmes

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

J Biomech Eng 126(1), 98-103 (Mar 09, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1645527 History: Received June 19, 2003; Revised October 09, 2003; Online March 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Topics: Fibers , Shapes , Stiffness
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References

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Mean left ventricular pressure (LVP, open circles), volume (LVV, solid circles), shape (solid triangles), and eccentricity (open triangles) curves in eight sham-operated control rats. Large solid circles on pressure tracing indicate (from left) end diastole, beginning of ejection, end of ejection, and beginning of filling.
Grahic Jump Location
Left ventricular shape/volume relationships. (a) Mean data from eight rats demonstrate sphericalization (increasing shape) of the left ventricle during filling (solid circles) and ellipticalization during ejection. (b) Plotting eccentricity, a different measure of shape, against normalized volume for comparison with canine data from Rankin 1980 2 reveals that behavior of rat (circles) and dog (triangles) ventricles is similar, with the rat LV more spherical at all volumes.
Grahic Jump Location
Model simulations of the effect of global chamber compliance on shape change. (a) Mean experimental (closed symbols) and model pressure-volume behavior (open symbols) at 3 different values of the isotropic exponential material constant b1=b2=b3(C=0.5 for all simulations). (b) Corresponding mean experimental and model shape/volume curves. (c) Model behavior across a larger range of material constants. A threefold change in the material constant produced shape change/volume change ratios (ΔSV, open triangles) that covered a range similar to the 95% confidence interval of the experimental data (closed triangles), while normalized ratios (ΔS/(ΔV/EDV), open circles) remained constant and slightly outside the experimental range (closed circles) for all simulations.
Grahic Jump Location
Model simulations of the effect of fiber stiffness and orientations on shape change. (a) Mean experimental (closed symbols) and model pressure-volume behavior (open symbols) at three different ratios of the material constants b1/b2; global stiffness was maintained by decreasing C as b1 increased. (b) Corresponding mean experimental and model shape/volume curves. Increasing fiber stiffness decreases sphericalization during filling. (c) Model behavior across a larger range of material constants. The model covers the 95% confidence interval of the experimental normalized shape change ratios (ΔS/(ΔV/EDV), solid circles) with a four-fold variation in b1/b2 for a symmetric fiber distribution (open circles). With a 10 deg shift in the fiber distribution a 15-fold change in the b1/b2 ratio is required to simulate the same range of shape changes (open triangles).

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