Mechanical Properties of Rat Middle Cerebral Arteries With and Without Myogenic Tone

[+] Author and Article Information
Rebecca J. Coulson

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405

Marilyn J. Cipolla, Lisa Vitullo

Neurology Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405

Naomi C. Chesler

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706

J Biomech Eng 126(1), 76-81 (Mar 09, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1645525 History: Received June 20, 2002; Revised September 02, 2003; Online March 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hayashi, K., Stergiopulos, N., Meister, J.-J., Greenwald, S. E., and Rachev, A., 2001, “Techniques in the Determination of the Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Laws of Arterial Walls,” in Cardiovascular Techniques—Biomechanical Systems Techniques and Applications, vol. 2, C. Leondes, Ed., New York: CRC Press.
Brayden,  J. E., Halpern,  W., and Brann,  L. R., 1983, “Biochemical and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Arteries From Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats,” Hypertension, 5, pp. 17–25.
Johansson,  B., 1989, “Myogenic Tone and Reactivity: Definitions Based on Muscle Physiology,” J. Hypertens., Suppl. 7, pp. S5–58; discussion S9.
Osol,  G., Osol,  R., and Halpern,  W., 1989, “Pre-Existing Level of Tone is an Important Determinant of Cerebral Artery Autoregulatory Responsiveness,” J. Hypertens. Suppl., 7, pp. S67–S69.
Osol,  G., and Halpern,  W., 1985, “Myogenic Properties of Cerebral Blood Vessels From Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats,” Am. J. Physiol., 249, pp. H914–H921.
Mellander,  S., 1989, “Functional Aspects of Myogenic Vascular Control,” J. Hypertens. Suppl., 7, pp. S21–S30; discussion S31.
Goedhard,  W. J., Knoop,  A. A., and Westerhof,  N., 1973, “The Influence of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction on Elastic Properties of Pig’s Thoracic Aortae,” Acta Cardiol., 28, pp. 415–430.
Hayashi,  K., Nagasawa,  S., Naruo,  Y., Okumura,  A., Moritake,  K., and Handa,  H., 1980, “Mechanical Properties of Human Cerebral Arteries,” Biorheology, 17, pp. 211–218.
Hudetz,  A. G., 1979, “Incremental Elastic Modulus for Orthotropic Incompressible Arteries,” J. Biomech., 12, pp. 651–655.
Dobrin,  P. B., and Rovick,  A. A., 1969, “Influence of Vascular Smooth Muscle on Contractile Mechanics and Elasticity of Arteries,” Am. J. Physiol., 217, pp. 1644–1651.
Fridez,  P., Makino,  A., Miyazaki,  H., Meister,  J.-J., Hayashi,  K., and Stergiopulos,  N., 2001, “Short-Term Biomechanical Adaptation of the Rat Carotid to Acute Hypertension: Contribution of Smooth Muscle,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 29, pp. 26–34.
Hajdu,  M. A., and Baumbach,  G. L., 1994, “Mechanics of Large and Small Cerebral Arteries in Chronic Hypertension,” Am. J. Physiol., 266, pp. H1027–H1033.
Cipolla,  M. J., Lessov,  N., Hammer,  E. S., and Curry,  A. B., 2001, “Threshold Duration of Ischemia for Myogenic Tone in Middle Cerebral Arteries: Effect on Vascular Smooth Muscle Actin,” Stroke, 32, pp. 1658–1664.
Osol,  G., Laher,  I., and Cipolla,  M., 1991, “Protein Kinase C Modulates Basal Myogenic Tone in Resistance Arteries From the Cerebral Circulation,” Circ. Res., 68, pp. 359–367.
Wiederhielm,  C. A., 1963, “Continuous Recording of Arteriolar Dimensions With a Television Microscope,” Am. J. Physiol., 18, pp. 1041–1042.
Fung, Y. C., 1993, Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, 2nd ed., New York: Springer-Verlag.
Carew,  T. E., Vaishnav,  R. N., and Patel,  D. J., 1968, “Compressibility of the Arterial Wall,” Circ. Res., 23, pp. 61–68.
Timoshenko, S., 1934, Theory of Elasticity, First ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
Hayashi,  K., Takamizawa,  K., Nakamura,  T., Kato,  T., and Tsushima,  N., 1987, “Effects of Elastase on the Stiffness and Elastic Properties of Arterial Walls in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits,” Atherosclerosis, 66, pp. 259–267.
Hayashi,  K., Handa,  H., Nagasawa,  S., Okumura,  A., and Moritake,  K., 1980, “Stiffness and Elastic Behavior of Human Intracranial and Extracranial Arteries,” J. Biomech., 13, pp. 175–184.
Hudetz,  A. G., Mark,  G., Kovach,  A. G., Kerenyi,  T., Fody,  L., and Monos,  E., 1981, “Biomechanical Properties of Normal and Fibrosclerotic Human Cerebral Arteries,” Atherosclerosis, 39, pp. 353–365.
Cipolla,  M. J., and Curry,  A. B., 2002, “Middle Cerebral Artery Function After Stroke: The Threshold Duration of Reperfusion for Myogenic Activity,” Stroke, 33(8), 2094–2099.
Cipolla,  M. J., McCall,  A. L., Lessov,  N., and Porter,  J. M., 1997, “Reperfusion Decreases Myogenic Reactivity and Alters Middle Cerebral Artery Function After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats,” Stroke, 28(1), 176–180.
Cipolla,  M. J., Porter,  J. M., and Osol,  G., 1997, “High Glucose Concentrations Dilate Cerebral Arteries and Diminish Myogenic Tone Through an Endothelial Mechanism,” Stroke, 28(2), 405–410; discussion 410–411.
Lagaud,  G. J., Skarsgard,  P. L., Laher,  I., and van Breemen,  C., 1999, “Heterogeneity of Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Pressurized Cerebral and Small Mesenteric Resistance Arteries of the Rat,” J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 290(2), 832–839.
Geary,  G. G., Krause,  D. N., and Duckles,  S. P., 2000, “Estrogen Reduces Mouse Cerebral Artery Tone Through Endothelial NOS- and Cyclooxygenase-Dependent Mechanisms,” Am. J. Phys-Heart-Circ. Phy. 279(2), H511–H519.
Thorin-Trescases,  N., and Bevan,  J. A., 1998, “High Levels of Myogenic Tone Antagonize the Dilator Response to Flow of Small Rabbit Cerebral Arteries,” Stroke, 29, pp. 1194–1201.
Zanchi,  A., Stergiopulos,  N., Brunner,  H. R., and Hayoz,  D., 1998, “Differences in the Mechanical Properties of the Rat Carotid Artery in Vivo, in Situ and in Vitro,” Hypertension, 32, pp. 180–185.


Grahic Jump Location
Experimental setup. The vessel was sutured onto glass cannulas above an optically clear window in the arteriograph chamber. Through this window, the vessel image is magnified by an inverted microscope objective and digitized by a CCD camera. Vessel diameter and wall thicknesses (right and left) were measured from one scan line of this digitized image by a video dimension analyzer (VDA). Perfusate pressure was controlled by a servo-mechanism under computer control through a data acquisition and control system (DATAQ). Perfusate and bath temperature were maintained at 37°C by closed loop control of heating elements (not shown).
Grahic Jump Location
Circumferential (A) and radial (B) Cauchy stress and Almansi strain for passive and active rat MCAs. Active values are reported for the 50–125 mmHg pressure range (⋄). Passive values are reported for the 5–200 mmHg pressure range (♦). Stress and strain were both calculated at the inner radius. The reference state used for the active and passive strain calculations was the passive inner radius at 0 mmHg. Values are mean±SE.
Grahic Jump Location
Representative pressure-diameter relation (A) and logarithmic transformation with linear regression (B) to show how β was determined for each vessel where p is the transmural pressure, ps is a reference pressure, re is the external radius, and res is the external radius measured at the reference pressure. The reference pressure chosen within the physiologic pressure range was 75 mmHg.
Grahic Jump Location
Incremental elastic modulus, Einc-p, for passive (♦) and active (⋄) vessels versus transmural pressure (A) and circumferential Almansi strain (B). Values are mean±SE. * p<0.05.
Grahic Jump Location
Activation modulus, Einc-a, calculated at transmural pressures ranging from 50 to 125 mmHg. The slope of the monotonic increase is significantly greater than zero between all pressures (* p<0.001). Values are mean±SE.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In