Effects of Ischemia on Epicardial Deformation in the Passive Rabbit Heart

[+] Author and Article Information
Glenn R. Gaudette

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Molecular Cardiology

Irvin B. Krukenkamp

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Cardiology

Evren U. Azeloglu

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Adam E. Saltman

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Institute for Molecular Cardiology, The State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY

Miriam Lense

Ward Melville High School, East Setauket, NY

Joseph Todaro

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Fu-Pen Chiang

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Institute for Molecular Cardiology, The State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY

J Biomech Eng 126(1), 70-75 (Mar 09, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1645524 History: Received February 12, 2002; Revised September 04, 2003; Online March 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Association, A. H., 2000, “2001 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update,” Dallas TX, American Heart Association.
Stoylen,  A., Heimdal,  A., Bjornstad,  K., Wiseth,  R., Vik-Mo,  H., Torp,  H., Angelsen,  B., and Skjaerpe,  T., 2000, “Strain Rate Imaging by Ulrasonography in the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease,” J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr, 13, p. 1053–1064.
Gaudette,  G. R., Todaro,  J., Krukenkamp,  I. B., and Chiang,  F. P., 2001, “Computer Aided Speckle Interferometry: a Technique for Measuring Deformation on the Surface of the Heart,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 29, p. 775–780.
Chiang,  F. P., 1978, “A Family of 2D and 3D Experimental Stress Analysis Technique Using Laser Speckles,” Solid Mechanics Archives,30, p. 1–32.
Asundi,  A., and Chiang,  F. P., 1982, “Theory and Application of White Light Speckle Methods,” Optical Engineering,24(4), p. 570–580.
Chen,  D. J., Chiang,  F. P., Tan,  Y. S., and Don,  H. S., 1993, “Digital Speckle-Displacement Measurements Using a Complex Spectrum Method,” Appl. Opt., 32(11), p. 1839–49.
Chiang, F. P., Wang, Q., and Lehman, F., 1997, “New Development’s in Full Field Strain Measurements Using Speckles.,” in Nontraditional Methods of Sensing Stress, Strains, and Damage in Materials and Structures., C. F. Lucas and D. A. Stubbs, Editors, ASTM. p. 156–169.
McCulloch,  A. D., Smaill,  B. H., and Hunter,  P. J., 1989, “Regional Left Ventricular Epicardial Deformation in the Passive Dog Heart,” Circ. Res., 64, p. 721–733.
McCulloch,  A. D., Hunter,  P. J., and Smaill,  B. H., 1992, “Mechanical Effects of Coronary Perfusion in the Passive Canine Left Ventricle,” Am. J. Physiol., 262, p. H523–530.
Omens,  J. H., MacKenna,  D. A., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1993, “Measurement of Strain and Analysis of Stress in Resting Rat Left Ventricular Myocardium,” J. Biomech., 6, p. 665–676.
Brixius,  K., Mehlhorn,  U., Bloch,  W., and Schwinger,  R. H., 2000, “Different Effect of the Ca(2+) Sensitizers EMD 57033 and CGP 48506 on Cross-Bridge Cycling in Human Myocardium,” J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 295(3), p. 1284–90.
Habazettl,  H., Voigtlander,  J., Leiderer,  R., and Messmer,  K., 1998, “Efficacy of Myocardial Initial Reperfusion With 2,3 Butanedione Monoxime After Cardioplegic Arrest is Time-Dependent,” Cardiovasc. Res., 37(3), p. 684–90.
Jayawant,  A. M., Stephenson,  E. R., and Damiano,  R. J., 1999, “2,3-Butanedione Monoxime Cardioplegia: Advantages Over Hyperkalemia in Blood-Perfused Isolated Hearts,” Ann. Thorac. Surg., 67(3), p. 618–23.
Starr,  J. P., Jia,  C. X., Rabkin,  D. G., Amirhamzeh,  M. M., Hart,  J. P., Hsu,  D. T., Soto,  P., Pinsky,  D., and Spotnitz,  H. M., 1999, “Pressure Volume Curves in Arrested Heterotopic Rat Heart Isografts: Role of Improved Myocardial Protection,” J. Surg. Res., 86(1), p. 123–9.
Saltman,  A. E., Aksehirli,  T. O., Valiunas,  V., Gaudette,  G. R., Matsuyama,  N., Brink,  P., and Krukenkamp,  I. B., 2002, “Gap Junction Uncoupling Protects the Heart Against Ischemia,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 124(2), p. 371–6.
Delhaas,  T., Arts,  T., Bovendeerd,  P. H. M., Prinzen,  F. W., and Reneman,  R. S., 1993, “Subepicardial Fiber Strain and Stress as Related to Left Ventricular Pressure and Volume,” Am. J. Physiol., 264, p. H1548–1559.
Costa,  K. D., May-Newman,  K., Farr,  D., O’Dell,  W. G., McCulloch,  A., and Omens,  J. H., 1997, “Three-Dimensional Residual Strain in Midanterior Canine Left Ventricle,” Am. J. Physiol., 273, p. H1968–1976.
Kang,  T., and Yin,  R. C. P., 1996, “The Need to Account for Residual Strains and Composite Nature of Heart Wall in Mechanical Analyses,” Am. J. Physiol., 271, p. H947–H961.
Prinzen,  F. W., Arts,  T., Hoeks,  A. P. G., and Reneman,  R. S., 1989, “Discrepancies Between Myocardial Blood Flow and Fiber Shortening in the Ischemic Border Zone as Assessed With Video Mapping of Epicardial Deformation,” Pfluegers Arch. 415, p. 220–29.
Fan,  D., Soei,  L. K., Stubenitsky,  R., Boersma,  E., Duncker,  D. J., Verdouw,  P. D., and Krams,  R., 1997, “Contribution of Asynchrony and Nonuniformity to Mechanical Interaction in Normal and Stunned Myocardium,” Am. J. Physiol., 273, p. H2146–54.
Vetter,  F. J., and McCulloch,  A. D., 2000, “Three-Dimensional Stress and Strain in Passive Rabbit Left Ventricle: a Model Study,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 28(7), p. 781–92.
Burns,  P. G., Krukenkamp,  I. B., Caldarone,  C. A., Gaudette,  G. R., Bukhari,  E. A., and Levitsky,  S., 1995, “Does Cardiopulmonary Bypass Alone Elicit Myoprotective Preconditioning?,” Circulation, 92, p. II-447–51.
Chatterjee,  S., Stewart,  A. S., Bish,  L. T., Sweeney,  H. L., and Garder,  T. J., 2001, “Gene Transfer of HGF is Superior to VEGF in Inducing Coronary Angiogenesis and Preservation of Myocardial Contractility,” Surg. Forum, 52, p. 67–69.
May-Newman,  K., Omens,  J. H., Pavelec,  R. S., and McCulloch,  A. D., 1994, “Three-Dimensional Transmural Mechanical Interaction Between the Coronary Vasculature and Passive Myocardium in the Dog,” Circ. Res., 74(6), p. 1166–78.


Grahic Jump Location
Representative data sets of myocardial deformation of a passive rabbit heart when the intracavitary pressure was increased from 0 to 10 mmHg. Note each contour represents 10 μ displacement. Numbers represent actual displacements in microns. (a) u and v displacements, respectively, at 20 minutes of perfusion in the arrested heart. (b) u and v displacements, respectively, at 15 minutes of global ischemia in the arrested heart. (c) u and v displacements, respectively, at 15 minutes of reperfusion in the arrested heart.
Grahic Jump Location
Principal strain (E1) and the first invariant of the 2-D strain (I1) for hyperkalemic hearts as a function of the perfusion status. Hearts were loaded from 10 to 20 mmHg pressure.
Grahic Jump Location
Deformation map of a regional ischemic rabbit heart. The images show the displacement for an intracavitary pressure increase from 0 to 25 mmHg. Each contour line represents 20 μm displacement. The image of the heart shown is captured with a wider zoom for representation purposes. The approximate ischemic border is delineated with the dashed line. (a) Regionally ischemic heart with u displacements. The approximate dimension of the analyzed region is given. (b) Regionally ischemic heart with v displacements. The invariant of the 2-D strain tensor was determined in the highlighted regions and their values are shown. The region in the upper right hand corner is in the perfused zone, and the region in the lower left hand corner is in the ischemic zone.
Grahic Jump Location
Shown above (top) is a schematic diagram of the experimental setup. The image on the bottom left shows a typical heart with the silicone carbide particles (approximately 40 μ in diameter) applied. The bottom right image shows an enlarged view of the region of interest. The cut out region in the lower left represents a 90×90-pixel area.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison between principal strain (from 10 to 20 mmHg intracavitary pressure) obtained with or without an intracavitary balloon in the passive rabbit heart. The use of an intracavitary balloon did not affect the strain on the ventricle, suggesting a highly compliant balloon.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In