How Cyclic Loading Affects the Migration of Radio-Opaque Markers Attached to Tendon Grafts Using a New Method: A Study Using Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis (RSA)

[+] Author and Article Information
P. J. Roos

Biomedical Engineering Program, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

M. L. Hull

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Program, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

S. M. Howell

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

J Biomech Eng 126(1), 62-69 (Mar 09, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1644568 History: Received September 05, 2002; Revised October 10, 2003; Online March 09, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Diagram of marker holders (labeled 1 through 4)
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Technique for constructing a tendon marker. (a) A tantalum marker was placed within the spherical indentation of marker holder 1. (b) Then marker holder 2 was aligned on top of marker holder 1. (c) A stainless steel suture was passed between the two marker holders and pulled around the tantalum marker. (d) The free ends of the suture were wrapped 90 degrees about each other. (e) The suture surrounding the tantalum marker was placed in the slot of marker holder 3. (f ) Marker holder 4 was then aligned on top and the free ends of the suture were pulled around the tantalum marker a second time. (g) The free ends of the suture were wrapped 360 degrees about each other.
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Diagram of completed tendon marker composed of a tantalum ball and stainless steel suture. The tantalum ball is contained in a basket, with four arms along the sides, made from a stainless steel suture.
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Scanned radiograph of proximal bovine tibia and ACL graft showing the Washerloc tibial fixation device (WL), tendon markers (G1 and G2), markers placed along the axis of the tibial tunnel (T1 and T2), markers in the radiographic standard (S1 and S2) and the rigid post (RP). The remaining four markers inserted into the tibia and used to define the local tibial coordinate system have been omitted for clarity.
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Cross-sectional view of an ACL graft showing the four tendon bundles and the region of placement of the tendon markers
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Photograph of specimen aligned in materials testing machine. The ACL graft was looped around a rigid post fixed to the base of the machine and immersed in saline. The specimen was surrounded by the plexiglass calibration cage.
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Figure of specimen showing the position of markers along the axis of the tibial tunnel and in the ACL graft. The vectors d and T are indicated.
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Marker migration for all specimens plotted against the number of cycles (log scale)
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Root mean square value of migration plotted against the number of cycles. The solid black line indicates the root mean square error of the RSA system.




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