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TECHNICAL BRIEFS

Effect of Specimen Thickness on Fracture Toughness of Bovine Patellar Cartilage

[+] Author and Article Information
D. J. Adams

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, MC-4037, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030

K. M. Brosche, J. L. Lewis

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455

J Biomech Eng 125(6), 927-929 (Jan 09, 2004) (3 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1635405 History: Received December 31, 2002; Revised April 22, 2003; Online January 09, 2004
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Kempson, G. E., 1979, “Mechanical properties of articular cartilage.” In Freeman, M.A.R. (ed): Adult Articular Cartilage, ed 2. Kent, UK, Pitman Medical Publishers, pp. 333–414.
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Mow, V. C. and Radcliffe, A., 1997, “Structure and function of articular cartilage and meniscus.” In Mow, V. C. and Hayes, W. C., Basic Orthopaedic Biomechanics, ed 2. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott-Raven Press, pp. 113–177.
Roberts,  S., Weightman,  B., Urban,  J., Chappell,  D., 1986, “Mechanical and biochemical properties of human articular cartilage in osteoarthritic femoral heads and in autopsy specimens.” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 68B, pp. 278–288.
Schmidt,  M. B., Mow,  V. C., Chun,  L. E., and Eyre,  D. R., 1990, “Effects of proteoglycan extraction on the tensile behavior of articular cartilage.” J. Orthop. Res., 8, 353–363.
Clark,  J. M., and Simonian,  P. T., 1997, “Scanning electron microscopy of ‘fibrillated’ and ‘malacic’ human articular cartilage: technical considerations.” Microsc. Res. Tech., 37, pp. 299–313.
Lewis,  J. L., and Johnson,  S. L., 2001, “Collagen architecture and failure processes in bovine patellar cartilage.” Journal of Anatomy, 199, pp. 483–492.
Atkins, A. G. and Mai, Y. W., 1985, Elastic and Plastic Fracture: Metals, Polymers, Ceramics, Composites, Biological Materials. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester and John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.
Chin-Purcell,  M. V., and Lewis,  J. L., 1996, “Fracture of Articular Cartilage.” J. Biomech. Eng., 118, pp. 545–556.
Elliot,  D. M., Narmoneva,  D. A., and Setton,  L. A., 2002, “Direct Measurement of the Poisson’s Ratio of Human Patella Cartilage in Tension.” J. Biomech. Eng., 124, pp. 223–228.
Chin-Purcell, M., 1995, Fracture Toughness of Cartilage, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Modified single edged notch (MSEN) specimen. An initial crack is cut in the cartilage and propagated toward the surface as the load is applied parallel to the surface via clamps on the bone. Specimen geometry, overall dimension, thickness (b) and crack length (i.e., a/W) are used in the calculation of fracture toughness using the analytical solution derived by Chin-Purcell and Lewis (1996).
Grahic Jump Location
The critical crack tip opening angle (CTOA) at the onset of crack propagation was measured from a magnified video recording of each test. CTOA is analogous to the common fracture mechanics parameter of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), but obviates the influence of tissue modulus and crack length, a/W, in the measurement of crack opening.
Grahic Jump Location
Fracture toughness (Jc) measured in thin and thick bovine specimens demonstrated substantial variation and did not suggest a dependence on thickness.

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