A Novel Device to Evaluate the Stiffness of Ankle-Foot Orthosis Devices

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Cappa, F. Patanè, M. M. Pierro

Department of Mechanics and Aeronautics, University of Rome “La Sapienza,” Via Eudossiana 18, Rome, ItalyClinical Engineering Service, Children’s Hospital “Bambino Gesù,” Piazza San Onofrio, 4, Rome, ItalyPaediatric Neuro-Rehabilitation Division, Children’s Hospital “Bambino Gesè,” Palidoro, Rome, Italy

J Biomech Eng 125(6), 913-917 (Jan 09, 2004) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1634993 History: Received October 21, 2002; Revised May 06, 2003; Online January 09, 2004
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Mollan,  R. B., and James,  W. V. A., 1977, “New flexible design of drop-foot orthosis,” Injury, 8(4), pp. 310–314.
Lehmann,  J. F., Condon,  S. M., Price,  R., and de Lateur,  B. J., 1987, “Gait abnormalities in hemiplegia: their correction by ankle-foot orthosis,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 68, pp. 763–771.
Romkes,  J., and Brunner,  R., 2002, “Comparison of a dynamic and a hinged ankle-foot orthosis by gait analysis in patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Gait & Posture, 15, pp. 18–24.
Nahorniak,  M. T., Gorton,  G. E., Gannotti,  M. E., and Masso,  P. D., 1999, “Kinematic compensations as children reciprocally ascend and descend stairs with unilateral and bilateral solid AFOs,” Gait & Posture, 9, pp. 199–206.
Thomas,  S. S., Buckon,  C. E., Jakobson-Huston,  S., Sussman,  M. D., and Aiona,  M. D., 2002, “Stair locomotion in children with spastic hemiplegia: the impact of three different ankle foot orthosis (AFOs) configurations,” Gait & Posture, 16, pp. 180–187.
Duan,  X. H., Allen,  R. H., and Sun,  J. Q., 1997, “A stiffness-varying model of the human gait,” Med. Eng. Phys., 19, pp. 518–524.
Davis,  R. B., and De Luca,  P. A., 1996, “Gait characterization via dynamic joint stiffness,” Gait & Posture, 4, pp. 224–231.
Winter,  D. A., Patla,  A. E., Prince,  F., Ishac,  M., and Gielo-Perczak,  K., 1998, “Stiffness control of balance in quiet standing,” J. Neurophysiol., 80(3), pp. 1211–1221.
Morasso,  P. G., and Schieppati,  M., 1999, “Can muscle stiffness alone stabilize upright standing?,” J. Neurophysiol., 82(3), pp. 1622–1626.
Winter,  D. A., Patla,  A. E., Rietdyk,  S., and Ishac,  M. G., 2001, “Ankle muscle stiffness in the control of balance during quiet standing,” J. Neurophysiol., 85(6), pp. 2630–2633.
Leone, D., Diemente, S., Gustave, S., Lopez, I., 1998, “Structural analysis of solid ankle-foot orthosis,” Bioengineering Conference Proceedings of the 1988 Fourteenth Annual Northeast, pp. 26–28.
Leone,  D., 1987, “A structural model for molded thermoplastic ankle-foot Orthosis analysis,” J. Biomech. Eng., 109, pp. 305–310.
Leone D., Diemente, S., Lopez-Isa, M., 1991, “Structural stability prediction for thermoplastic ankle-foot orthosis,” Bioengineering Conference, Proceedings of the 1991 IEEE Seventeenth Annual Northeast, pp. 231–232.
Chu, T., 1995, “Experimental validation on finite element stress analysis of a polymeric orthotic device.” IEEE-EMBC and CMBEC, 2, pp. 1259–1260.
Deitz,  D., 1997, “Optimizing orthotic designs with FEA,” Mechanical Engineering Magazine July issue, 119(7), pp. 70–71.
Chu,  T. M., Reddy,  N. P., and Padovan,  J., 1995, “Three dimensional finite element stress analysis of the polypropylene, ankle foot orthosis static analysis,” Med. Eng. Phys., 17, pp. 372–9.
Reddy, N. P., Pohit, G., Lam, P. C., Grotz, R. C., 1985, “Finite element modelling of ankle-foot orthoses,” Proc Inter Conf Biomechanics and Clinical Kinesiology of Hand and Foot, Indian Institute of Technology, pp. 97–99
Syngellakis,  S., Arnold,  M. A., and Rassoulian,  H., 2000, “Assessment of the nonlinear behaviour of plastic ankle foot orthoses by the finite element method,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 214(5), pp. 527–539.
Chu,  T., Reddy,  N. P., and Padovan,  J., 1995, “Stress Distribution in the Ankle-Foot Orthosis Used to Correct Pathological Gait,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., 32(4), pp. 349–360.
Chu,  T., and Chu,  T., 1996, “A Bonding Methods of Strain Gages to the Polypropylene Ankle-Foot Orthosis,” Exp. Tech., 20(5), pp. 29–31.
Chu,  T., 2000, “Determination of peak stress on polypropylene ankle-foot orthoses due to weight change using strain gage technology,” Exp. Tech., 24(2), pp. 28–30.
Yamamoto,  S., Ebina,  M., Iwasaki,  M., Kubo,  S., Kawai,  H., and Kawai,  H., 1993, “Comparative Study of Mechanical Characteristics of Plastic AFOs,” J of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 5, pp. 259–264.
Lunsford,  T. R., Ramm,  T., and Miller,  J., 1994, “Viscoelastic Properties of Plastic Paediatric AFOs,” J of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 6, pp. 3–9.
Singerman,  R., Hoy,  D. J., Mansour,  J., 1999, “Design Changes in Ankle-Foot Orthosis Intended to Alter Stiffness Also Alter Orthosis Kinematics,” J of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 11, pp. 48–56.
Lai, J. Y., Kitaoka, H., Kaufman, K., 2001, “Orthosis Stiffness Characteristics,” 6th annual GCMAS meeting Sacramento CA USA April 25–28.
Klasson,  B., Convery,  P., and Raschke,  S., 1998, “Test apparatus for the measurement of the flexibility of ankle-foot orthoses in planes other than the loaded plane,” Prosthet. Orthot Int., 22(1), pp. 45–53.
Katdare, K., Schwartz, M., Wervey, R., 2000, “The Non-Linear Stiffness of Ankle Foot Orthoses Measurement and Prediction,” 5th GCMAS meeting Rochester MN USA April 12–15.
Grood,  E. S., and Suntay,  W. J., 1983, “A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee,” J. Biomech. Eng., 105, pp. 136–144.
Cole,  G. K., Nigg,  B. M., Ronsky,  J. L., and Yeadon,  M. R., 1993, “Application of the joint coordinate system to three-dimensional joint attitude and movement representation: a standard proposal,” J. Biomech. Eng., 115, pp. 344–349.
Tupling,  S. J., and Pierrynowski,  M. R., 1987, “Use of Cardan angles to locate rigid bodies in three-dimensional space,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., 25, pp. 527–532.


Grahic Jump Location
(a) Variation of the average stiffness Kα (averaged between −6° and 6°) as a function of β; (b) variation of the average stiffness Kβ (averaged between −10° and 10°) as a function of α.
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of the total moment Mα2+Mβ2+Mγ2 as a function of α and β. The moment Mγ is always zeroed because the foot is free to rotate.
Grahic Jump Location
Scheme of the AFO testing machine: two elementary rotation of abduction and flexion are represented here by angles β<0 and α<0 respectively, 0O1 is the “neutral” position of the “knee”; the rotation γ is also showed.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In