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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Theoretical Analysis of Damage Evolution in Skeletal Muscle Tissue With Reference to Pressure Ulcer Development

[+] Author and Article Information
Roel G. M. Breuls, Carlijn V. C. Bouten, Cees W. J. Oomens, Frank P. T. Baaijens

Eindhoven University of Technology

Dan L. Bader

Queen Mary University of London

J Biomech Eng 125(6), 902-909 (Jan 09, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1634287 History: Received April 14, 2003; Revised July 16, 2003; Online January 09, 2004

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Contour plot of macroscopic damage evolution in muscle tissue, with cell properties κ=18.7 kPa and G=1.9 kPa, and parameters α=6⋅10−3,Tcell=9⋅10−3.
Grahic Jump Location
Damage evolution in four selected microstructures at four different external pressures P(P=4 kPa, 4.4 kPa, 5 kPa and 6 kPa). The damage in the four microstructures, positioned at different locations in the macroscopic mesh, are represented by the four subplots. The vertical axis of each subplot is the external pressure P whereas the horizontal axis denotes the time of compression. The color bars represent the percentage damaged cells in the microstructures.
Grahic Jump Location
Damage evolution in a particular microstructure at four different external pressures P(P=4 kPa, 4.4 kPa, 5 kPa and 6 kPa). The vertical axis is the external pressure P whereas the horizontal axis denotes the time of compression. The color bar represents the percentage damaged cells in the microstructure.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Macroscopic mesh representing a muscle and skin layer that are compressed against a bony prominence, by an external pressure P. The nine circles in one particular macroscopic element indicate the location of the macroscopic integration points to which the microstructural models are assigned, (b) Microstructural mesh representing a simplified geometry of randomly dispersed cells embedded in extracellular matrix material (ECM).
Grahic Jump Location
Cell damage evolution in engineered skeletal muscle tissue constructs, adopted from 9. The percentage of dead cells is shown as a function of time for two different gross compressive strain levels. Unstrained constructs were identified as “control.”
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Plot of J versus damage initiation time for different values of a with Tcell=0.009 [s]. The three lines correspond to α=0.002, 0.006, 0.010[−].
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Damage evolution in an RVE, subjected to gross compressive strains of 30% and 50% compression for 8 hours, which is simulated by 40 time increments. Each circle represents one time increment.
Grahic Jump Location
Contour plot of macroscopic damage evolution in muscle tissue, with cell properties κ=150 kPa and G=15.6 kPa and parameters α=6⋅10−3,Tcell=9⋅10−3. The gray scale bars represent the percentage damaged cells in a macroscopic point as determined from the underlying microstructure.
Grahic Jump Location
Contour plot of macroscopic damage evolution in muscle tissue, with lower cell stiffnesses κ=18.7 kPa and G=1.9 kPa, and parameters α=6⋅10−3,Tcell=9⋅10−3.

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