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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Development and Validation of a 3-D Model to Predict Knee Joint Loading During Dynamic Movement

[+] Author and Article Information
S. G. McLean, A. Su, A. J. van den Bogert

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH

J Biomech Eng 125(6), 864-874 (Jan 09, 2004) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1634282 History: Revised June 20, 2003; Received November 16, 2003; Online January 09, 2004
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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Figures

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Marker placements used during the collection of high speed video data. Standing (neutral) maker data (A) were used to construct a kinematic model of the trunk and lower limb. These data along with those recorded during sidestepping trials (B) were processed via Mocap Solver software to solve for the 12 degrees of freedom.
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Three-component Hill model for muscle force production: contractile element (CE), parallel elastic element (PEE), and series elastic element (SEE). The corresponding relationships between lengths and forces are shown.
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Measured variables incorporated within the model optimization, comprising three ground reaction forces (V1−V3), three body rotations (V4−V6) and six joint rotations (V7−V12).
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Comparisons between measured and simulated sidestep data for the first 200 ms of stance for key movement (hip flexion-extension, knee flexion-extension and ankle inversion-eversion) and GRF (vertical force) variables.
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Optimized muscle activations for the 11 functional muscle groups used in the simulation of the sidestep cutting maneuver. Activation patterns for each group were modeled as a 5 parameter piecewise linear functions of time. Quadriceps activations represented those applied to the vastus lateralis, medialis and intermedius muscles. Hamstring activation patterns were applied to the hamstring and biceps femoris (short and long head) muscles. Plantar flexor activations were applied to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Comparisons are also made between these and similar data reported previously for sidestepping maneuvers 18.
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Comparisons between model RMS prediction errors and measured between-trial variability over 200 ms, for key movement (A. hip flexion-extension, B. knee flexion-extension and C. ankle inversion-eversion) and GRF (D. vertical force) variables
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External 3D knee joint reaction forces calculated for the optimized sidestep simulation. Peak anterior force (A), valgus (B) and internal rotation torque (C) values of 34.6 N, 19.15 Nm and 19.24 Nm respectively, were observed over the first 200 ms of stance
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Monte Carlo simulations (n=100000), representing realistic variations in neuromuscular control at impact, produced large increases in anterior knee joint reaction force, and valgus and internal rotation torques over the first 200 ms of stance during simulated sidestepping trials

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