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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Finite-Element Simulation of Cooling of Realistic 3-D Human Head and Neck

[+] Author and Article Information
Brian H. Dennis

Frontier Simulation Software for Industrial Science, Collaborative Research Center, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Muguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan

Robert C. Eberhart

Department of Surgery and Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-9130

George S. Dulikravich

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, MAIDO Institute, The University of Texas at Arlington, UTA Box 19018, Arlington, TX 76019

Steve W. Radons

Research & Development, Medtronic Physio-Control Corporation, 11811 Willows Road NE, P.O. Box 97006, Redmond, WA 98073-9706

J Biomech Eng 125(6), 832-840 (Jan 09, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1634991 History: Received June 17, 2002; Revised July 25, 2003; Online January 09, 2004
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Ku,  Y.-T., Montgomery,  L. D., and Webbon,  B. W., 1996, “Hemodynamic and Thermal Responses to Head and Neck Cooling in Men and Women,” Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 75(6), pp. 443–450.
Orr, C. S., and Eberhart, R. C., 1998, “Bioheat Transfer in Blood Perfused Tissues and Clinical Application of Hypothermia,” Chapter 1 in Annual Review of Heat Transfer, ed.: C. L. Tien, Begell House, New York, pp. 1–78.
Olsen, R. W., 1985, “Temperature Profiles in the Head and Other Tissues of the Macaque Rhesus Monkey Subjected to Surface and/or Core Cooling,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas.
Olsen,  R. W., Hayes,  L. J., Wisler,  E. H., Nikaidoh,  H., and Eberhart,  R. C., 1985, “Influence of Hypothermia and Circulatory Arrest on Cerebral Temperature Distributions,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 107, pp. 354–360.
Vietla, S., 1995, “The Influence of Hypothermia and Tissue Perfusion on Temperature Distribution in Simulated Intracranial Surgery,” M.Sc. thesis, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX.
Pennes,  H. H., 1948, “Analysis of Tissue and Arterial Blood Temperatures in the Resting Forearm,” J. Appl. Physiol., 1, pp. 93–122.
Huebner, K. H., Thorton, E. A., and Byrom, T. G., 1995, The Finite Element Method for Engineers, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 3rd edition.
Balay, S., Gropp, W. D., McInnes, L. S., and Smith, B. F., 1999, “PETSc 2.0 Users Manual,” Technical Report ANL-95/11—Revision 2.0.24, Argonne National Laboratory.
Dennis,  B. H., and Dulikravich,  G. S., 1999, “Simultaneous Determination of Temperatures, Heat Fluxes, Deformations, and Tractions on Inaccessible Boundaries,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121, pp. 537–545.
Dennis, B. H., and Dulikravich, G. S., 2000, “Determination of Unsteady Container Temperatures During Freezing of Three-Dimensional Organs With Constrained Thermal Stresses,” In: Internat. Symposium on Inverse Problems in Engineering Mechanics—ISIP’2k, eds: M. Tanaka and G. S. Dulikravich, Nagano, Japan, March 7–10, 2000, Elsevier Science Ltd, Amsterdam, pp. 139–148.
Dennis, B. H., Dulikravich, G. S., and Rabin, Y., 2000, “Optimization of Organ Freezing Protocols With Specified Allowable Thermal Stress Levels,” ASME IMECE 2000, Orlando, FL, Nov. 5–10, 2000, HTD-Vol. 368/BED-Vol. 47, pp. 33–48.
Proceedings of First Users Conference of the National Library of Medicine’s Visible Human Project, October 7–8, 1996, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Sachse, F., Werner, C., Müller, M., and Meyer-Waarden, K., 1996, “Preprocessing of the Visible Man Dataset for the Generation of Macroscopic Anatomical Models,” Proc. First Users Conference of the National Library of Medicine’s Visible Human Project, October 7–8, 1996, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Sachse, F., Werner, C., Müller, M., and Meyer-Waarden, K., 1996, “Segmentation and Tissue-Classification of the Visible Man Dataset Using the Computertomographic Scans and the Thin-Section Photos,” Proc. First Users Conference of the National Library of Medicine’s Visible Human Project, October 7–8, 1996, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Shitzer, A., and Eberhart, R. C. (eds.), 1985, Heat Transfer in Medicine and Biology: Analysis and Applications, Volume II, Appendix II, Plenum Press, New York.
Shitzer, A., and Eberhart, R. C. (eds.), 1985, Heat Transfer in Medicine and Biology, Analysis and Applications, Volume 1, Plenum Press, New York, Chap. 12, pp. 279–283.
Bowman,  H. F., Cravalho,  E. G., and Woods,  M., 1975, “Theory, Measurement, and Application of Thermal Properties of Biomaterials,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng., 4, pp. 43–80.
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Corbett,  R. J. T., and Laptook,  A., 1988, “Failure of Localized Head Cooling to Reduce Brain Temperature in Adult Humans,” NeuroReport, 9, pp. 2721–2725.
Bernard,  S. A., Jones,  B. M., and Horne,  M. K., 1997, “A Clinical Trial of Induced Hypothermia in Comatose Survivors of Prehospital Cardiac Arrest,” Ann. Emerg. Med., 30, pp. 146–153.

Figures

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View of the triangular surface mesh of the realistic human head 1314
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Temperature monitor points on a vertical symmetry slice taken in the middle of head
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Temperature evolution at monitor points in the brain for Case 1 (no tissue perfusion and θsurf=0°C)
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Temperature contours on slice through middle of head for Case 1 (no tissue perfusion and θsurf=0°C) after 30 min of cooling
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Temperature contours on slice through middle of head for Case 1 (no tissue perfusion and θsurf=0°C) after 70 min of cooling
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Power transferred across surface of the head for Case 1 (no tissue perfusion and θsurf=0°C)
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Temperature evolution at monitor points in the brain and power transferred across surface of the head for Case 2 (tissue perfusion with θsurf=0°C and θart=35°C)
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Temperature evolution at monitor points in the brain and power transferred across surface of the head for Case 3 (tissue perfusion with θsurf=0°C and θart=33°C)
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Temperature contours on a slice through middle of the head for Case 3 (tissue perfusion with θsurf=0°C and θart=33°C) after 4 min of cooling
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Temperature contours on a slice through middle of the head for Case 3 (tissue perfusion with θsurf=0°C and θart=33°C) after 8 min of cooling
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Temperature evolution at monitor points in the brain and power transferred across surface of the head for Case 4 (tissue perfusion with θsurf=0°C and θart=31°C)
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Temperature evolution at monitor points in the brain and power transferred across surface of the head for Case 5 with cooled helmet (no tissue perfusion with θsurf=0°C and surface heat transfer coefficient hsurf=25.0 W m−2 °C−1)
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Temperature evolution at monitor points in the brain for Case 6 with cooled helmet (tissue perfusion with θsurf=0°C,hsurf=25.0 W m−2 °C−1 and θart=37°C at all internal elements of the head)
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Temperature evolution at monitor points in the brain for Case 7 with cooled helmet (tissue perfusion with θsurf=0°C,hsurf=46.0 W m−2 °C−1 and θart=37°C at all internal elements of the head)
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Triangular surface mesh for neck model
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Material regions and geometry for the idealized neck model
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Steady-state isotherms on neck slice that passes through both vein and artery (Vmax=0.5 m/s) for Case 8 (no tissue perfusion and θsurf=0°C)
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Artery outlet temperature profile along the artery diameter in the x-direction for various values of peak blood velocity for Case 8 (no tissue perfusion and θsurf=0°C)

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