0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

Harmonic Analysis of Perfusion Pumps

[+] Author and Article Information
F. Carroll Dougherty, F. M. Donovan

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688

Mary I. Townsley

Department of Physiology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688

J Biomech Eng 125(6), 814-822 (Jan 09, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1632524 History: Received June 14, 2002; Revised July 07, 2003; Online January 09, 2004
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Hickey,  P. R., Buckley,  M. J., and Philbin,  D. M., 1983, “Pulsatile and Nonpulsatile Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Review of a Counterproductive Controversy,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 36(6), pp. 720–736.
Wright,  G., 1994, “Hemodynamic Analysis Could Resolve the Pulsatile Blood Flow Controversy,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 58(4), pp. 1199–1204.
Wright,  G., 1995, “The Assesment of Pulsatile Blood Flow,” Perfusion, 10, pp. 135–140.
Galletti,  P. M., 1993, “Cardioplumonary Bypass: A Historical Perspective,” Artificial Organs, 17(8), pp. 675–686.
Jacobs,  L. A., Klopp,  E. H., Seamone,  W., Topaz,  S. R., and Gott,  V. L., 1969, “Improved Organ Functions During Cardiac Bypass with a Roller Pump Modified to Deliver Pulsatile Flow,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 58(5), pp. 703–712.
Runge,  T. M., Cohen,  D. J., Hantler,  C. B., Bohls,  F. O., Ottmers,  S. E., and Briceno,  J. C., 1992, “Achievement of Physiologic Pulsatile Flow on Cardiopulmonary Bypass with a 24 French Cannula,” American Society for Artificial Organs Journal, 38, pp. M726–M729.
Trinkle,  J. K., Helton,  N. E., Wood,  R. E., and Bryant,  L. R., 1969, “Metabolic Comparison of a New Pulsatile Pump and a Roller Pump for Cardiopulmonary Bypass,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 58(4), pp. 562–569.
Dunn,  J., Kirsh,  M. M., Harness,  J., Carroll,  M., Straker,  J., and Sloan,  H., 1974, “Hemodynamic, Metabolic, and Hematologic Effects of Pulsatile Cardiopulmonary Bypass,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 68(1), pp. 138–147.
Macha,  M., Yamazaki,  K., Gordon,  L. M., Watach,  M. J., Konishi,  H., Billiar,  T. R., Borovetz,  H. S., Kormos,  R. L., Griffith,  B. P., and Hattler,  B. G., 1996, “The Vasoregulatory Role of Endothelium Derived Nitric Oxide During Pulsatile Cardiopulmonary Bypass,” American Society for Artificial Organs Journal, 42, pp. M800–M804.
Shepard,  R. B., and Kirklin,  J. W., 1969, “Relation of Pulsatile Flow to Oxygen Consumption and Other Variables During Cardiopulmonary Bypass,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 58(5), pp. 694–702.
Onoe,  M., Mori,  A., Watarida,  S., Sugita,  T., Shiraishi,  S., Nojima,  T., Nakajima,  Y., Tabata,  R., and Matsuno,  S., 1994, “The Effect of Pulsatile Perfusion on Cerebral Blood Flow During Profound Hypothermia with Total Circulatory Arrest,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 108(1), pp. 119–125.
Murkin,  J. M., Martzke,  J. S., Buchan,  A. M., Bentley,  C., and Wong,  C. J., 1995, “A Randomized Study of the Influence of Perfusion Technique and pH Management Strategy in 316 Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. I. Mortality and Cardiovascular Morbidity,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 110(2), pp. 340–348.
Runge,  T. M., Grover,  F. L., Cohen,  D. J., Bohls,  F. O., Ottmers,  S. E., and Saadatmanesh,  V., 1991, “Comparison of a Steady Flow Pump to a Preload Responsive Pulsatile Pump in Left Atrial-to-Aorta Bypass in Canines,” Artificial Organs, 15(1), pp. 35–41.
Runge,  T. M., Briceno,  J. C., Sheller,  M. E., Moritz,  C. E., Sloan,  L., Bohls,  F. O., and Ottmers,  S. E., 1993, “Hemodialysis: Evidence of Enhanced Molecular Clearance and Ultrafiltration Volume by Using Pulsatile Flow,” International Journal of Artificial Organs, 16(9)f, pp. 645–652.
Louagie,  Y. A., Gonzalez,  M., Collard,  E., Mayne,  A., Gruslin,  A., Jamart,  J., Buche,  A., and Schoevaerdts,  J., 1992, “Does Flow Character of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Make a Difference?” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 104, pp. 1628–1638.
Hindman,  B. J., Dexter,  F., Smith,  T., and Cutkomp,  J., 1995, “Pulsatile versus Nonpulsatile Flow. No Cerebral Blood Flow or Metabolism During Normothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Rabbits,” Anesthesiology, 82(1), pp. 241–250.
Knothe,  C. H., Boldt,  J., Zickermann,  B., Konstantinov,  S., Dick,  P., Dapper,  F., and Hempelmann,  G., 1995, “Influence of Different Flow Modi During Extracorporeal Circulation on Endothelial-derived Vasoactive Substances,” Perfusion, 10(4), pp. 229–236.
Chow,  G., Roberts,  I. G., Edwards,  A. D., Lloyd-Thomas,  A., Wade,  A., Elliott,  M. J., and Kirkham,  F. J., 1997, “The Relation Between Pump Flow Rate and Pulsatility on Cerebral Hemodynamics during Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 114(4), pp. 568–577.
Chow,  G., Roberts,  I. G., Harris,  D., Wilson,  J., Elliott,  M. J., Edwards,  A. D., and Kirkham,  F. J., 1998, “Stockert Roller Pump Generated Pulsatile Flow: Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass,” Perfusion, 12(2), pp. 113–119.
Wright,  G., and Sanderson,  J. M., 1972, “Brain Damage and Mortality in Dogs Following Pulsatile and Nonpulsatile Blood Flows in Extracorporeal Circulation,” Thorax, 27, pp. 738.
Singh,  R. K. K., Barratt-Boyes,  B. G., and Harris,  E. A., 1980, “Does Pulsatile Flow Improve Perfusion During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass?” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 79(6), pp. 827–832.
Saito,  O., Lamm,  W. J. E., Hildebrandt,  J., and Albert,  R. K., 1995, “Flow Pulsatility Does Not Increase Mean Microvascular Pressure or Filtration in Zone 3 Rabbit Lungs,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(3), pp. 914–920.
Lodge,  A. J., Undar,  A., Daggett,  C. W., Runge,  T. M., Calhoon,  J. H., and Ungerleider,  R. M., 1997, “Regional Blood Flow During Pulsatile Cardiopulmonary Bypass and After Circulatory Arrest in an Infant Model,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 63(5), pp. 1243–1250.
Wright,  G., 1997, “Mechanical Simulation of Cardiac Function by Means of Pulsatile Blood Pumps,” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 11(3), pp. 299–309.
Grossi,  E. A., Connolly,  M. W., Krieger,  K. H., Nathan,  I. M., Hunter,  C. E., Colvin,  S. B., Baumann,  F. G., and Spencer,  F. C., 1985, “Quantification of Pulsatile Flow During Cardiopulmonary Bypass to Permit Direct Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Types of ‘Pulsatile’ and ‘Nonpulsatile’ Flow,” Surgery, 98(3), pp. 547–553.
Wright,  G., 1988, “The Hydraulic Power Outputs of Pulsatile and Nonpulsatile Cardiopulmonary Bypass Pumps,” Perfusion, 3, pp. 251–262.
Wright,  G., Sum Ping,  J. S. T., Campbell,  C. S., and Tobias,  M. A., 1988, “Computation of Haemodynamic Power and Input Impedance in the Ascending Aorta of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery,” Cardiovascular Research, 22, pp. 179–184.
Wright,  G., 1992, “Engineering and Physiologic Approaches to the Study of Cardiovascular Function: Science and Pseudoscience?” Cardiovascular Research, 26, pp. 215–217.
McDonald, D. A., 1974, Blood Flow in Arteries, Edward Arnold, London, pp. 351–358.
Milnor, W. R., 1982, Hemodynamics, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 157–271.
Roy,  B. J., Pitts,  V. H., and Townsley,  M. I., 1996, “Pulmonary Vascular Response to Angiotensin II in Canine Pacing-Induced Heart Failure,” American Journal of Physiology, 271, pp. H222–H227.
Townsley,  M. I., Fu,  Z., Mathieu-Costello,  O., and West,  J. B., 1995, “Pulmonary Microvascular Permeability: Responses to High Vascular Pressure after Induction of Pacing-Induced Heart Failure in Dogs,” Circulation Research, 77, pp. 317–325.
Townsley,  M. I., Korthuis,  R. J., Rippe,  B., Parker,  J. C., and Taylor,  A. E., 1986, “Validation of Double Vascular Occlusion Method for Pc,i in Lung and Skeletal Muscle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 61, pp. 127–132.
Townsley,  M. I., Parker,  J. C., Korthuis,  R. J., and Taylor,  A. E., 1987, “Alterations in Hemodynamics and Kf,c during Lung Mass Resection,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 63, pp. 2460–2466.
Townsley,  M. I., Snell,  K. S., Ivey,  C. L., Culberson,  D. E., Liu,  D. C., Reed,  R. K., and Mathieu-Costello,  O., 1999, “Remodeling of Lung Interstitium but not Resistance Vessels in Canine Pacing-Induced Heart Failure,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 87, pp. 1823–1830.
Donovan,  F. M., Talyor,  B. C., and Su,  M. C., 1991, “One-Dimensional Computer Analysis of Oscillatory Flow in Rigid Tubes,” Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 113, pp. 476–484.
Taylor,  B. C., and Donovan,  F. M., 1992, “Hydraulic Resistance and Damping in Catheter-Transducer Systems,” IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 11(4), pp. 72–78.
Zhao,  S., Suciu,  A., Ziegler,  T., Moore,  J. E., Burki,  E., Meister,  J.-J., and Brunner,  H. R., 1995, “Synergistic Effects of Fluid Shear Stress and Cyclic Circumferential Stretch on Vascular Endothelial Cell Morphology and Cytoskeleton,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 15, pp. 1781–1786.
De Keulenaer,  G. W., Chappell,  D. C., Ishizaka,  N., Nerem,  R. M., Alexander,  R. W., and Griendling,  K. K., 1998, “Oscillatory and Steady Laminar Shear Stress Differentially Affect Human Endothelial Redox State,” Circulation Research, 82, pp. 1094–1101.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Sketch of extracorporeal circuit for pump studies. In the test section, a compliance chamber, isolated lung lobe, or tubing could be incorporated
Grahic Jump Location
In vivo pressure trace (a) and resulting harmonic signature (b). Graph (a) shows both the recorded signal and the approximation computed using Fourier Analysis. The first harmonics in (b) are based on the ventilator; the first key harmonic occurs at about 2.5 Hz, which corresponds to the heart rate of the animal.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of recorded signal with the approximation from Fourier Analysis, where (a), the approximation is computed using only the first 10 computed harmonics, frequency range of only about 2.5 Hz, or (b), a larger frequency range encompassing the first 10 key harmonics (the 10 largest amplitudes). The latter provides for a much improved approximation.
Grahic Jump Location
Impact of changing perfusate viscosity. Pressure traces in the ex vivo circuit are compared for the Masterflex roller pump when saline (viscosity=1.06 centipoise) and Dextran (viscosity=3.6 centipoise) were used as the perfusate. Graphs (a) and (b) show the upstream pressure traces and approximations for saline and Dextran respectively. Graphs (c) and (d) compare the upstream and downstream pressure traces for both fluids. The downstream Dextran pressure signal is greatly attenuated by the increased viscosity.
Grahic Jump Location
Harmonic signature for the Masterflex roller pump for the saline and Dextran cases. Note that the scale has been changed for the Dextran downstream pressure.
Grahic Jump Location
Analysis of Masterflex roller pump with the compliance chamber in the test circuit. Graphs (a) and (b) show the pressure traces upstream and downstream of the compliance chamber. The harmonic signatures for each trace are shown in graphs (c) and (d). Note the change of scale in graph (d). Although the signal downstream of the compliance chamber is greatly attenuated, residual harmonics are still apparent.
Grahic Jump Location
Impact of changing flow rate on the harmonic signature. Pressure traces from three different flow rates delivered by the Masterflex roller pump were analyzed: (a) Q∼300 mL/min, (b) Q∼600 mL/min, and (c) Q∼1000 mL/min. While the period of the key harmonics increases with the flow rate, the pattern of significant harmonics does not change.
Grahic Jump Location
Pressure traces for the isolated lung case using the Masterflex roller pump. The upstream pressures are shown in graphs (a) and (b). The pressure trace for graph (b) was taken with the ventilator turned off. Graphs (c) and (d) are pressure traces taken downstream of the lung lobe. Again, graph (d) is taken with the ventilator off. The effect of the ventilation is evident in (a) and (c) as a long, slow sinusoidal wave.
Grahic Jump Location
Harmonic signatures for the isolated lung case using the Masterflex roller pump. Graphs (a) and (b) are the signatures for the upstream pressure with the ventilator on and off, respectively. Graphs (c) and (d) are the signatures for the downstream pressures (note scale change) with the ventilator on and off, respectively. The lack of ventilation is very evident at the low frequencies in (b) and (d), while the key harmonics remain unaffected.
Grahic Jump Location
Pressure and flow traces for a different isolated lung using the Masterflex roller pump. Graph (a) shows the recorded upstream pressure trace and the computed approximation. The flow trace is shown in (b). The harmonic signatures for both traces are shown in (c) and (d). The key harmonics occur at the same frequencies in both plots.
Grahic Jump Location
Harmonic signature comparisons for three typical perfusion pumps. The top two graphs show the upstream pressure trace and its harmonic signature for the Masterflex roller pump. The middle two graphs show the upstream pressure and harmonic signature for the Harvard peristaltic pump. The bottom two graphs are the pressure trace and harmonic signature for the Harvard piston pump. Note scale changes between pumps for the harmonic signatures. Each pump yields a unique signature.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of harmonics derived from pressure and flow signals for the three perfusion pumps. The Masterflex roller pump pressure and flow harmonic signatures are shown in the top two graphs. The middle two graphs show the pressure and flow harmonic signatures for the Harvard peristaltic pump. Harmonic signatures for pressure and flow for the Harvard piston pump are shown in the bottom two graphs. Note the different scales for each pump. The harmonic signatures are consistent with those in Fig. 11.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In