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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Cell

A Model for the Modulation of Microvessel Permeability by Junction Strands

[+] Author and Article Information
Bingmei M. Fu, Bin Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cancer Institute, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

J Biomech Eng 125(5), 620-627 (Oct 09, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1611514 History: Received November 13, 2002; Revised February 18, 2003; Online October 09, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

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Curry,  F. E., 1986, “Determinants of Capillary Permeability: A Review of Mechanisms Based on Single Capillary Studies in the Frog,” Circ. Res., 59, pp. 367–380.
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Fu,  B. M., Curry,  F. E., and Weinbaum,  S., 1995, “A Diffusion Wake Model for Tracer Ultrastructure-Permeability Studies in Microvessels,” Am. J. Physiol., 269(38), pp. H2124–H2140.
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He,  P., and Curry,  F. E., 1993, “Differential Actions of cAMP on Endothelial [Ca2+]i and Permeability in Microvessels Exposed to ATP,” Am. J. Physiol., 265(34), pp. H1019–1023.
Rubin,  L. G., Hall,  D. E., Porter,  S., Barbu,  K., Cannon,  C., Horner,  H. C., Janatpour,  M., Liaw,  C. W., Manning,  K., Morales,  J., Tanner,  L. I., Tomaselli,  K. J., and Bard,  F., 1991, “A Cell Culture Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier,” J. Cell Biol., 115, pp. 1725–1735.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Previous model for the interendothelial cleft structure [1,7,8, with permission]. (a) 3-D sketch; (b) plane view. Ljun is the junction strand thickness. L1 and L3 are the depths between the junction strand and the luminal and abluminal fronts of the cleft. L is the total length of the cleft. The distance between two adjacent breaks in the junction strand is 2-D. At the entrance of the cleft on the luminal side, surface glycocalyx is represented by a periodic square array of cylindrical fibers. Lf is the fiber layer thickness. The radius of these fibers is a and the gap spacing between fibers is Δ. In the junction strand, there are periodically distributed large pores 2d×2B and a continuous small slit of height 2bs. This model can successfully explain the microvessel permeability under normal conditions 1.
Grahic Jump Location
New model for explaining cAMP effect showing a surface glycocalyx layer and two junction strands in the cleft. (a) 3-D sketch; (b) plane view. L1 and L2 are the distances between the first and the second junction strands and the luminal front of the cleft, respectively. There is an interface between the surface glycocalyx and the cleft entrance at x=0. yc is the distance between the center of the periodic junction strand unit in the second strand and the centerline across the large junction pore in the first strand.
Grahic Jump Location
Lp and P as a function of the strand location L1 for the single junction strand case. (a) Large pore (2d×2B=150 nm×20 nm) only in the strand; (b) Two pores in the strand (small slit height 2bs=1.1 nm). Lp, P values at L1/L=0.5 are taken as the normal control values for nondimensionalization in Figs. 5, 6, and 7 in each case.
Grahic Jump Location
Concentration distributions of sodium fluorescein in the cleft region when there are two junction strands. The first strand is located at x=200 nm and the second at x=300 nm. Upper row: Large pore only in the strands; Bottom row: Two pores in the strand. (a) yc=0, when the center of the second strand unit lines with the center of the large pore in the first strand, (b) yc=75 nm, when the large pore in the second strand is located on one side the periodic unit and (c) yc=1320 nm, when the large pore in the second strand lines exactly with the large pore in the first strand. The solute flux for the case shown in upper (a) is 9.3×10−6cm/s, and in lower (a), 44.5×10−6cm/s; in upper (b), 5.8×10−6cm/s, and in lower (b), 41.9×10−6cm/s; in upper (c), 35.3×10−6cm/s, and in lower (c), 57.7×10−6cm/s.
Grahic Jump Location
Dimensionless Lp and P as a function of the locations of the junction strands L1 and L2 and the alignment of large junction pores in the strands yc (see Fig. 2). (a) L1=25 nm,L2=200 nm; (b) L1=100 nm,L2=200 nm; (c) L1=200 nm,L2=300 nm.yc/D=0 corresponds to the case when the center of the second strand unit lines with the center of the large pore in the first strand (see Fig. 4a); yc/D=75/1320 is the case when the large pore in the second strand is located on one side the periodic unit (see Fig. 4b); yc/D=1 is when the large pore in the second strand lines exactly with the large pore in the first strand (see Fig. 4c). The left column is for the case when there are only large pores in both strands and the right column for the case when two pores in both strands.
Grahic Jump Location
The mean dimensionless Lp and P as a function of the second strand location L2 when L1=100 nm averaged over all possible yc (see Fig. 2b)
Grahic Jump Location
The mean dimensionless Lp and P as a function of the first strand location L1 averaged over all possible L2 (L2>L1) and yc (see Fig. 2b). L2>L1 means that the location of the second junction strand L2 is always further than that of the first one L1 to the entrance of the cleft.

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