Computational Analyses of Mechanically Induced Collagen Fiber Remodeling in the Aortic Heart Valve

[+] Author and Article Information
Niels J. B. Driessen, Ralf A. Boerboom, Jacques M. Huyghe, Carlijn V. C. Bouten, Frank P. T. Baaijens

Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

J Biomech Eng 125(4), 549-557 (Aug 01, 2003) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1590361 History: Received July 25, 2002; Revised March 12, 2003; Online August 01, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Topics: Fibers , Valves
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Fiber architecture in the native aortic heart valve leaflet (from 5 with permission). The fibers are mainly oriented along the circumferential direction and some radially oriented fibers are present at the base.
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Schematic representation of fiber reorientation. The fiber (e⃗fj) is rotated over an angle Δθj towards the principal strain direction (e⃗pj), resulting in the new fiber direction (e⃗fj′).αj denotes the angle between e⃗fj and e⃗pj.
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Schematic representation of the procedure to update the fiber directions in the undeformed configuration. The old fiber direction in the undeformed configuration (e⃗f0) is transformed to the fiber direction in the deformed configuration (e⃗f). The fiber direction is then rotated towards the principal strain direction to obtain the new fiber direction (e⃗f). Finally, back transformation results in the updated fiber direction in the undeformed configuration (e⃗f0).
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Finite-element meshes of the valve in a stented (a) and stentless (b) geometry. In (b), the rigid stent from (a) is replaced by the aortic root and one sinus is omitted for an improved perspective. Because of symmetry only 16 of the valve was used in the finite-element analyses.
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Tip displacements as a function of the relative period of time at different pressure levels (a, entries I, II, and III from Table 1), with different fiber stiffnesses (b, entries III, IV, and V from Table 1), different initial fiber directions (c, entries III and VI from Table 1), and different magnitudes of the rate constants (d, entries III, VII, VIII, and IX from Table 1).
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Fiber configurations. Mean value of the final total volume fraction on the aortic and ventricular side (left). The color bar is subdivided into 10 discrete levels and the upper limit is set to 0.25, although in (a) maximum values of 0.3 are observed at the fixed edge. This truncation is performed to obtain a better resolution. Final fiber orientation on the aortic side of the leaflet (right). The fiber vectors are scaled with their volume fraction. (a) and (b) are obtained with reference values of the parameters (entry III in Table 1). (c) and (d) are obtained with a stentless valve geometry (entry X in Table 1). (e) and (f) are obtained with a stentless opened valve configuration (entry XI in Table 1).
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Experimental data (left) of a fixed porcine aortic valve leaflet (from 35 with permission) together with the computed (right) final fiber directions in a stented valve geometry [from Fig. 6(b)]. The vector plots indicate the preferred fiber direction, running from commissure to commissure. The color map indicates the orientation index OI [deg], which is indicative for the degree of alignment. Highly aligned networks have low OI values, whereas more randomly oriented networks have larger values.




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