0
TECHNICAL PAPERS: Soft Tissue

Effect of Thermal Damage and Biaxial Loading on the Optical Properties of a Collagenous Tissue

[+] Author and Article Information
J.-H. Jun, J. L. Harris, J. D. Humphrey, S. Rastegar

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

J Biomech Eng 125(4), 540-548 (Aug 01, 2003) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1591202 History: Received May 26, 2000; Revised March 13, 2003; Online August 01, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Miller,  M., and Truhe,  T., 1993, “Lasers in Dentistry: An Overview,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 124(2), pp. 32–35.
Shawl,  F. A., Domanski,  M. J., Kaul,  U., Dougherty,  K. G., Hoff,  S., Rigali,  G. E., Cornell,  S. L., and Shahab,  S. T., 1999, “Procedural Results and Early Clinical Outcome of Percutaneous Transluminal Myocardial Revascularization,” Am. J. Cardiol., 83(4), pp. 498–501.
Deckelbaum,  L. I., 1994, “Cardiovascular Applications of Laser Technology,” Lasers Surg. Med., 15(4), pp. 315–341.
Lesk,  M. R., Spaeth,  G. L., Azuara-Blanco,  A., Araujo,  S. V., Katz,  L. J., Terebuh,  A. K., Wilson,  R. P., Moster,  M. R., and Schmidt,  C. M., 1999, “Reversal of Optic Disc Cupping After Glaucoma Surgery Analyzed With a Scanning Laser Tomograph,” Ophthalmology, 106(5), pp. 1013–1018.
Nimni,  M. E., 1983, “Collagen: Structure, Function and Metabolism in Normal and Fibrotic Tissue,” Semin Arthritis Rheum., XIII(1), pp. 1–86.
Bashey,  R., Torii,  S., and Angrist,  A., 1967, “Age-Related Collagen and Elastin Content of Human Heart Valve,” J. Gerontology, 22(2), pp. 203–208.
Jacques, S. L., and Gaeeni, M. O., 1989, “Thermally Induced Changes in Optical Properties of Heart,” IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 11th Annual International Conference Proceedings, 11 , pp. 1199–1200.
Pickering,  J. W., Bosman,  S., Posthumus,  P., Blokland,  P., and Beek,  J. F., 1993, “Changes in Optical Properties (at 632.8 nm) of Slowly Heated Myocardium,” Appl. Opt., 32, pp. 367–371.
Pickering,  J. W., Posthumus,  P., and van Gemert,  M. J. C., 1994, “Continuous Measurement of Heat-Induced Changes in the Optical Properties (at 1064 nm) of Rat Liver,” Lasers Surg. Med., 14, pp. 200–205.
Vogel,  A., Dlugos,  C., Nuffer,  R., and Birngruber,  R., 1991, “Optical Properties of Human Sclera and Their Consequences for Transscleral Laser Applications,” Lasers Surg. Med., 11, pp. 331–340.
Rastegar,  S., and Motamedi,  M., 1990, “A Theoretical Analysis of Dynamic Variation of Temperature Dependent Optical Properties in the Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue,” SPIE Proceedings of Laser-Tissue Interaction, 1202, pp. 253–259.
Rastegar,  S., Kim,  B.-M., and Jacques,  S. L., 1992, “Role of Temperature Dependence of Optical Properties in Laser Irradiation of Biological Tissue,” SPIE Proceedings of Laser-Tissue Interaction, 1646, pp. 228–235.
Nau,  W. H., Roselli,  R. J., and Milam,  D. F., 1999, “Measurement of Thermal Effects on the Optical Properties of Prostate Tissue at Wavelengths of 1,064 and 633 nm,” Lasers Surg. Med., 24(1), pp. 38–47.
Thomsen,  S., Jacques,  S. L., and Flock,  S., 1990, “Microscopic Correlates of Macroscopic Optical Property Changes During Thermal Coagulation of Myocardium,” SPIE Proceedings of Laser-Tissue Interaction, 1202, pp. 2–11.
Splinter,  R., and Sevenson,  R. H., 1991, “Optical Properties of Normal, Diseased, and Laser Photocoagulated Myocardium at Nd:YAG Wavelength,” Lasers Surg. Med., 11, pp. 117–124.
Derbyshire,  G. J., Bogen,  D. K., and Uger,  M., 1990, “Thermally Induced Optical Property Changes in Myocardium,” Lasers Surg. Med., 10, pp. 28–34.
Thomsen,  S., and Vijverberg,  H., 1993, “Changes in Optical Properties of Rat Skin During Thermal Coagulation,” SPIE Proceedings of Laser-Tissue Interaction, 1882, pp. 230–236.
Chen,  S. S., Wright,  N. T., and Humphrey,  J. D., 1997, “Heat-Induced Changes in the Mechanics of a Collagenous Tissue: Isothermal Free-Shrinkage,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119(4), pp. 372–378.
Kang,  T., Resar,  J., and Humphrey,  J. D., 1995, “Heat-Induced Changes in the Mechanical Properties of Passive Coronary Arteries,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 117, pp. 86–93.
Chen,  S. S., and Humphrey,  J. D., 1998, “Heat-Induced Changes in the Mechanics of a Collagenous Tissue: Pseudoelastic Behavior at 37°C,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 31, pp. 211–216.
Chen,  S. S., Wright,  N. T., and Humphrey,  J. D., 1998, “Heat-Induced Changes in the Mechanics of a Collagenous Tissue: Isothermal, Isotonic Shrinkage,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 382–388.
Kirsch,  K. M., Zelickson,  B. D., Zachary,  C. B., and Tope,  W. D., 1998, “Ultrastructure of Collagen Thermally Denatured by Microsecond Domain Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser,” Arch. Dermatol., 134(10), pp. 255–259.
Ortt,  E. M., Doss,  D. J., Legall,  E., Wright,  N. T., and Humphrey,  J. D., 2000, “A Device for Evaluating the Multiaxial Finite Strain Thermomechanical Behavior of Elastomers and Soft Tissue,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 67, pp. 465–471.
Humphrey,  J. D., Strumpf,  R. K., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1990, “Biaxial Mechanical Behavior of Excised Ventricular Epicardium,” Am. J. Physiol., 259, pp. H101–H108.
Downs,  J., Halperin,  H. R., Humphrey,  J. D., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1990, “An Improved Video-Based Computer Tracking System for Soft-Biomaterials Testing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 37, pp. 903–907.
Jacques,  S. L., and Prahl,  S., 1987, “Modeling Optical and Thermal Contributions in Tissue During Laser Irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med., 6, pp. 494–503.
Kang,  T., Humphrey,  J. D., and Yin,  F. C. P., 1996, “Comparison of Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Excised Endocardium and Epicardium,” Am. J. Physiol., 270, pp. H2169–H2179.
Chen,  S. S., Wright,  N. T., and Humphrey,  J. D., 1998, “Phenomenological Evolution Equations for Heat-Induced Shrinkage of a Collagenous Tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 45(10), pp. 1234–1240.
Wang,  L., and Jacques,  S. L., 1993, “Hybrid Model of Monte Carlo Simulation and Diffusion Theory for Light Reflectance by Turbid Media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 10(8), pp. 1746–1752.
Wang,  L., Jacques,  S. L., and Zheng,  L., 1995, “Monte Carlo Modeling of Light Transport in Multi-Layered Tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed., 47, pp. 131–146.
McShane, M. J., 1999, “Design of an Optical Probe and Signal Processing for an Implantable Fluorescence-Based Glucose Sensor,” Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
van de Hulst, H. C., 1981, Light Scattering by Small Particle, Dover, New York.
Farrell, R. A., 1994, “Corneal Transparency,” in Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, D. M. Albert and F. A. Jakobiec, eds., Saunders Com, Philadelph, PA.
Zeng,  H., MacAulay,  C., and McLean,  D. I., 1997, “Reconstruction of in vivo Skin Autofluorescence Spectrum From Microscopic Properties by Monte Carlo Simulation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B, 38, pp. 234–240.
Kienle,  A., and Hibst,  R., 1995, “A New Optimal Wavelength for Treatment of Port Wine Strains,” Phys. Med. Biol., 40, pp. 1559–1576.
Marchesini,  R., Clemente,  C., and Pignoli,  E., 1992, “Optical Properties of in vitro Epidermis and Their Possible Relationship With Optical Properties of in vivo Skin,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., B, 16, pp. 127–140.
Graaff,  R., Dassel,  A. C. M., Koelink,  M. H. , 1993, “Optical Properties of Human Dermis in vitro and in vivo,” Appl. Opt., 32, pp. 435–447.
Birk,  D. E., and Lande,  M. A., 1981, “Coneal and Scleral Collagen Fiber Formulation in vitro,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 670, pp. 362–369.
Wang,  Y.-N., Galiotis,  C., and Bader,  D. L., 2000, “Determination of Molecular Changes in Soft Tissues Under Strain Using Laser Raman Microscopy,” J. Biomech., 33, pp. 483–486.
Prahl,  S. A., Cheong,  W. F., Yoon,  G., and Welch,  A. J., 1988, “Optical Properties of Human Arota During Low Power Argon Laser Irradiation,” SPIE Laser Interaction with Tissue, 908, pp. 29–33.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schema of the overall system, consisting of four computer controlled motors that stretch the specimen in orthogonal directions, two load cells for measuring applied forces, a CCD combined with custom software for monitoring the deformation of the specimen in a central region, a laser-integrating sphere system for measuring optical properties, and a temperature measurement and control device
Grahic Jump Location
Side-view (panel a, top ) and top-view (panel b, bottom) line drawings of the device (not to scale). Specific components are: CCD—video camera, GS—glass slide, LS—laser, M1-M5—optical mirrors, IS—integrating sphere, SC—specimen chamber, SP—specimen, S1-S4—stepper motors, P1-P3—possible laser beam paths and CCD viewing path, and IO—fluid inlet/outlet ports.
Grahic Jump Location
Time-histories for the natural heating rate (no temperature control), constant heating rate (controlled here at 1°C/min), and isothermal heating (controlled here at 75°C) of the specimen chamber measured at the specimen location
Grahic Jump Location
Schema of the overall experimental protocol. The epicardium is removed from the LV, prepared for testing, mechanically preconditioned for 10 cycles from 2–80 grams biaxially, unloaded to find the reference configuration and then subjected to mechanical and optical testing. The specimen is then unloaded and immersed in a 65°C solution for a specified heating time τ, which allows biaxial shrinkage ξ(τ). After heating, the specimen is returned to a room temperature normal saline for a one hour “recovery” period after which the equilibrium shrinkage ξe is measured. The specimen is then preconditioned for 10 cycles and unloaded to measure the new reference configuration. This process is repeated several times to get information at a series of damage states for a single specimen.
Grahic Jump Location
Cross line between the measured and calculated transmittances via Monte Carlo simulation: (a) three-dimensional view, (b) projected view.
Grahic Jump Location
Cross line between the measured and calculated reflectances via Monte Carlo simulation: (a) three-dimensional view, (b) projected view
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of thermal denaturation on scattering coefficients of epicardium under biaxial loading at green wavelength (542 nm)
Grahic Jump Location
Similar to Fig. 7 except at the red wavelength (633 nm)
Grahic Jump Location
Absorption coefficients of native and denatured epicardium under biaxial loading at green wavelength (542 nm)
Grahic Jump Location
Similar to Fig. 9 except at the red wavelength (633 nm)
Grahic Jump Location
Percent change in the reduced scattering coefficient at (a) the green wavelength and (b) the red wavelength
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison in the percent change in optical and mechanical properties at five different thermal damage states

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In