Experimental/Analytical Analysis of Human Locomotion Using Bondgraphs

[+] Author and Article Information
Cristian Pop, Amir Khajepour, Jan P. Huissoon

Aftab E. Patla

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada

J Biomech Eng 125(4), 490-498 (Aug 01, 2003) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1590356 History: Received February 15, 2001; Revised February 26, 2003; Online August 01, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Amirouche,  F. M. L., Ider,  S. K., and Trimble,  J., 1990, “Analytical Method for the Analysis and Simulation of Human Locomotion,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 112, 379.
Kuo,  A. D., 1998, “A Least-Square Estimation Approach to Improving the Precision of the Inverse Dynamics Computations,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, 148.
Meglan, D., and Todd, F., 1994, “Kinetics of Human Locomotion,” Human Walking, 2nd edition, Jessica Rose and James G. Gamble, eds., pp. 73–101, Williams & Wilkins.
Risher,  D. W., Schutte,  L. M., and Runge,  C. F., 1997, “The Use of Inverse Dynamics Solutions in Direct Dynamics Simulations,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119, 417.
Runge,  C. F., Zojac,  F. E., Risher,  D. W., and Bryson,  A. E., 1995, “Estimating Net Joint Torques From Kinesiological Data Using Optimal Linear System Theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 42(12), 1158.
Tashman,  S., Zojac,  F. E., and Perkash,  I., 1995, “Modeling and Simulation of Paraplegic Ambulation in a Reciprocating Gait Orthosis,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 117, 300.
Winter,  D. A., 1995, “Human Balance and Posture Control During Standing and Walking,” Journal of Gait & Posture, 3, 193.
Anderson,  F. C., and Pandy,  M. G., 2001, “Dynamic Optimization of Human Walking,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 123, 381.
Alkjaer,  T., Simonsen,  E. B., and Dyhre-Poulsen,  P., 2002, “Comparison of Inverse Dynamics Calculated by Two- and Three-Dimensional Models During Walking,” Journal of Gait and Posture, 13, 73.
Anderson,  F. C., and Pandy,  M. G., 1999, “A Dynamic Optimization Solution for Vertical Jumping in Three Dimensions,” Journal of Comput Meth. in Biomech. and Biomed. Eng., 2, 201.
Kuo,  A. D., 2001, “A Simple Model of Bipedal Walking Predicts the Preferred Speed-Step Length Relationship,” J. Biomech. Eng., 123, 264.
Tagawa,  Y., and Yamashita,  T., 2001, “Analysis of Human Abnormal Walking Using Zero Moment Joint: Required Compensatory Actions,” J. Biomech., 34, 783.
Matthijsse, P. C., and Breedveld, P. C., 1988, “Modeling and Simulation of Human Gait in Three Dimensions Using Multibond Graphs and Implicit Integration Routines,” in Congress Proceedings, pages 477–480. 7th Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology.
Matthijsse, P. C., and Breedveld, P. C., 1989, “Modeling and Simulation of Human Gait in Three Dimensions With Multibond Graphs,” in Congress Proceedings, pages 208–209. Xii International Congress of Biomechanics, Los Angeles, California.
Karnopp, D. C., Margolis, D. L., and Rosenberg, R. C., 1990, Systems Dynamics: A Unified Approach, Wiley & Sons, New York.
Winter, David A., 1990, Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, John Wiley, New York.
McCaw,  Steven T., and Paul,  DeVita, 1995, “Errors in Alignment of Center of Pressure and Foot Coordinates Affect Predicted Lower Extremity Torques,” J. Biomech. Eng., 28, 985.
Winter, David A., 1995, The Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Gait: Normal, Elderly and Pathological, University of Waterloo Press.
Taga,  Gentaro, 1995, “A Model of Neuro–Musculo–Skeletal System for the Human Locomotion,” IEEE Biological Cybernetics, 73, 97.


Grahic Jump Location
a) Free body diagram of a planar rigid body, b) Vectorial bondgraph model, c) Compact I field
Grahic Jump Location
Stick representation of the model
Grahic Jump Location
Bondgraph representation of the model using I-fields
Grahic Jump Location
Bondgraphs of one segment. a) I-field presentation, b) Detailed model.
Grahic Jump Location
Location of the IRED’s
Grahic Jump Location
Single support and double support phase detection
Grahic Jump Location
Difference function used for the three extra equations
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison between horizontal GRF calculated using the model and those obtained from the force plate. L FP and R FP represents the left and right force plates readings. L M and R M are calculated left and right horizontal GRFs using the model.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison between vertical GRF calculated using the model (dashed lines) and those obtained from the force plate (solid lines)
Grahic Jump Location
Center of pressure of ground walking estimated with the model (dashed lines) compared with COP from the force plates readings (solid lines). The plot represents two consecutive steps as they were collected by force plates.
Grahic Jump Location
a) COP (solid line) and COM (dashed line) for ground walking, b) COP (solid line) and COM (dashed line) for treadmill walking
Grahic Jump Location
GRFs in x and y directions for left (dashed lines) and right (solid lines) foot predicted by the model in treadmill walking. The vertical lines indicate the regions for SS and DS phases.
Grahic Jump Location
Ground reaction forces in treadmill walking in different subjects using the model, solid lines=left foot, dashed lines=right foot




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In