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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Respiratory Flow in a Realistic Tracheostenosis Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Toshihiro Sera

Center for Life Science and Technology, School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522, Japan, Fax: +81-45-564-5095e-mail: sera@tani.sd.keio.ac.jp

Sunao Satoh

Department of System Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522, Japan, Fax: +81-45-564-5095

Hirohisa Horinouchi, Koichi Kobayashi

Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinanomachi 35, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan, Fax: +81-3-3358-0567

Kazuo Tanishita

Department of System Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522, Japan, Fax: +81-45-566-1720e-mail: tanishita@sd.keio.ac.jp

J Biomech Eng 125(4), 461-471 (Aug 01, 2003) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1589775 History: Received April 22, 2002; Revised April 01, 2003; Online August 01, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Experimental apparatus for measuring the velocity field. In inspiratory flow the reservoir A was used as an upper reservoir and the other reservoir B was as a lower one, and in the expiratory flow vice versa.
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Axial position for the velocity measurement. X direction is the smooth muscle side.
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Tracheal deflection (dTS and dTC) as a function of transmural pressure (Ptp). Error bars show standard deviation.
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Photographs of cross-sections at the stenosis (1) and station S0b (2) of the flexible model for a transmural pressure at the entrance of the test section at 0 cm H2O (a) and 3 cm H2O (b). Top: the side of the cartilage rings, Bottom: the side of the smooth muscle.
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Experimental apparatus for measuring tracheal deflection as a function of transmural pressure. The static shutter was used to measure dTS and dTC individually; when dTS wasmeasured the cartilage rings was not rayed, and when dTC was measured the smooth muscle was not rayed.
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Mechanical models to determinate the Young’s modulus of the smooth muscle (a) and tracheal cartilage rings (b)
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CT images showing normal (a), abnormal stenosis (b), and three-dimensional image (c). Large arrows show a trachea and small arrow shows a stenosis. The stenosis constriction was 47%. The bottom side of a and b and the left side of c is smooth muscle side.
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Photograph of the realistic model fabricated by using stereolithography. Arrow indicates stenosis. Scale bar: 20 mm.
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Schematic of tracheal cartilage rings and smooth muscle
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Inspiratory flow in the rigid model: (a) Axial velocity contours and axial turbulence intensity distributions (increment between contour lines is w/W⁁=0.2), and (b) secondary velocity profiles and secondary turbulence intensity distributions (the scale bar is (u/W⁁=1). The smooth muscle side was shown at the bottom side of all profiles. “L” means the left main bronchus and “R” means the right bronchus. Thin lines at station S0b in (a) shows the recirculation zone. Turbulence energy was produced at the boundary layer (a) and the free shear layer at station S0b (b).
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Inspiratory flow in the flexible model: (a) Axial velocity contours and axial turbulence intensity distributions, and (b) secondary velocity profiles and secondary turbulence intensity distributions. Dotted lines, which are the bottoms of the all profiles, show smooth muscle. Thin lines at station S0b in (a) shows the recirculation zone. Turbulence energy was produced at the free shear layer at station S0b (c).
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Expiratory flow in the rigid model: (a) Axial velocity contours and axial turbulence intensity distributions, and (b) secondary velocity profiles and secondary turbulence intensity distributions. The smooth muscle side was shown as the bottom side of all profiles. Thin lines at station S0a in (a) shows the recirculation zone. Turbulence energy was produced at the boundary layer at station S0b (d) and the free shear layer at station S0a (e).
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Expiratory flow in the flexible model: (a) Axial velocity contours and axial turbulence intensity distributions, and (b) secondary velocity profiles and secondary turbulence intensity distributions. Dotted lines, which are the bottoms of the all profiles, show smooth muscle. The turbulence energy was produced much at the boundary layer at station S0b (f) and the free shear layer at station S0a (g).
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Power spectrum of axial velocity at locations of strong turbulence intensity during inspiratory flow (solid lines) and expiratory flow (dotted lines) for the (a) rigid model and (b) flexible model.

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