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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Fluids/Heat/Transport

Numerical Modeling of Pulsatile Turbulent Flow in Stenotic Vessels

[+] Author and Article Information
Sonu S. Varghese, Steven H. Frankel

School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907

J Biomech Eng 125(4), 445-460 (Aug 01, 2003) (16 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1589774 History: Received January 28, 2002; Revised February 10, 2003; Online August 01, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Stenosis geometries for the (a) smooth stenosis of Ahmed and Giddens 11, where L=4.0 and D=2.0, and the (b) sharp-edged stenosis of Ojha et al. 9, where L=1.5 mm and D=5.0 mm. For both geometries, the normalized distance from the stenosis center is given by Z=Z/D.
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Grid refinement tests. The velocity profiles were obtained using the low Reynolds number RNG k–ε model and normalized by the mean inlet velocity. The distances are in normalized units (normalized by diameter). Only a third of the actual number of grid points used is shown and profiles are offset by 5 units in the x direction. (a) Smooth stenosis. The profiles were obtained during peak inlet flow. (b) Sharp-edged stenosis. The profiles were obtained during minimum flow conditions at the inlet.
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Comparison of computed velocity profiles at different axial locations distal to the smooth stenosis with the experimental profiles of Ahmed and Giddens 10, for steady flow at inlet Re=500
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(a) Flow inlet waveform for the smooth stenosis. The inlet waveform used by Ahmed and Giddens is also shown. A flat inlet velocity profile was used for the simulation. (b) Comparison of computed velocity profiles at different axial locations distal to the stenosis with the experimental profiles of Ahmed and Giddens 11 for pulsatile flow with mean inlet Re=600. Velocity profiles are compared during peak inlet flow conditions (T2).
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Velocity profiles for the smooth stenosis at different phases in the flow cycle, normalized by the mean inlet velocity. The distances are in normalized units (by diameter away from the center of the stenosis) and the profiles are offset by 5 units in the x direction.
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Streamlines for the smooth stenosis from the low Reynolds number RNG k–ε model at different phases in the flow cycle. The stream function increment is 0.0015 s−1 . The axial distance is indicated in normalized units Z (normalized by diameter).
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Streamlines for the smooth stenosis from the low Reynolds number k–ω model at different phases in the flow cycle. The streamfunction increment is 0.0018 s−1 .
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Turbulence intensity profiles for the smooth stenosis at different phases in the flow cycle. The distances are in normalized units (by diameter away from the center of the stenosis) and the profiles are offset by 5 units in the x direction.
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Axial wall shear stress profiles for the smooth stenosis case at different phases in the flow cycle. The axial distance is indicated in normalized units, Z.
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Flow inlet waveform for the sharp-edged stenosis (different from the waveform used for the smooth stenosis). A flat inlet velocity profile was used for the simulation.
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Velocity profiles for the sharp-edged stenosis at different phases in the flow cycle, normalized by the mean inlet velocity. The distances are in normalized units (by diameter away from the center of the stenosis) and the profiles are offset by 5 units in the x direction.
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Centerline velocity waveforms at Z=0.6 for the sharp-edged stenosis. Waveforms computed by the four turbulence models are compared to the experimental data.
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Streamlines for the sharp-edged stenosis from the low Reynolds number RNG k–ε model at different phases in the flow cycle. The stream function increment is 0.000425 s−1 . The axial distance is indicated in normalized units Z (normalized by diameter).
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Streamlines for the sharp-edged stenosis from the low Reynolds number k–ω model at different phases in the flow cycle. The stream function increment is 0.00054 s−1 .
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Turbulence intensity profiles for the sharp-edged stenosis at different phases in the flow cycle. The distances are in normalized units (by diameter away from the center of the stenosis) and the profiles are offset by 25 units in the x direction.
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Axial wall shear stress profiles for the sharp-edged stenosis at different phases in the flow cycle. The axial distance is indicated in normalized units, Z.

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