A Model for Mechanics of Primary Lymphatic Valves

[+] Author and Article Information
Ernesto Mendoza, Geert W. Schmid-Schönbein

Department of Bioengineering, The Whitaker Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0412

J Biomech Eng 125(3), 407-414 (Jun 10, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1568128 History: Received September 01, 2002; Revised December 01, 2002; Online June 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Casley-Smith,  J. R., 1972, “The role of the endothelial intercellular junctions in the functioning of the initial lymphatics,” Angiologica, 9, pp. 106–131.
Aukland,  K., and Reed,  R. K., 1993, “Interstitial-lymphatic Mechanisms in the Control of Extracellular Fluid Volume,” Physiol. Rev., 73, pp. 1–78.
Zweifach, B. W., and Silberberg, A., 1979, The Interstitial-lymphatic Flow System., in International Review of Physiology-Cardiovascular Physiology III, A. C. Guyton and D. B. Young, Editor. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 215–260.
Schmid-Schönbein,  G. W., 1990, “Microlymphatics and Lymph Flow,” Physiol. Rev., 70, pp. 987–1028.
Ikomi,  F., and Schmid-Schönbein,  G. W., 1996, “Lymph Pump Mechanics in the Rabbit Hind Leg,” Am. J. Physiol., 271, pp. H173–H183.
Skalak,  T. C., Schmid-Schönbein,  G. W., and Zweifach,  B. W., 1984, “New Morphological Evidence for a Mechanism of Lymph Formation in Skeletal Muscle,” Microvasc. Res., 28, pp. 95–112.
Mazzoni,  M. C., Skalak,  T. C., and Schmid-Schönbein,  G. W., 1990, “The Effect of Skeletal Muscle Fiber Deformation on Lymphatic Volume,” Am. J. Physiol., 259, pp. H1860–H1868.
Zweifach,  B. W., and Prather,  J. W., 1975, “Micromanipulation of Pressure in Terminal Lymphatics in the Mesentery,” Am. J. Physiol., 228, pp. 1326–1335.
Trzewik,  J., Mallipattu,  S. R., Artmann,  G. M., DeLano,  F. A., and Schmid-Schönbein,  G. W., 2001, “Evidence for a Second Valve System in Lymphatics: Endothelial Microvalves,” FASEB J., 15, pp. 1711–1717.
Mazzoni,  M. C., Skalak,  T. C., and Schmid-Schönbein,  G. W., 1987, “Structure of Lymphatic Valves in the Spinotrapezius Muscle of the Rat,” Blood Vessels, 24, pp. 304–312.
Schmelz,  M., Moll,  R., Kuhn,  C., and Franke,  W. W., 1994, “Complexus Adhaerentes, a New Group of Desmoplakin-containing Junctions in Endothelial Cells: II. Different Types of Lymphatic Vessels,” Differentiation, 57, pp. 97–117.
Dejana,  E., 1997, “Endothelial Adherens Junctions: Implications in the Control of Vascular Permeability and Angiogenesis,” J. Clin. Invest., 100(11Suppl), pp. S7–10.
O’Morchoe,  C. C., and O’Morchoe,  P. J., 1987, “Differences in Lymphatic and Blood Capillary Permeability: Ultrastructural-functional Correlations,” Lymphology, 20, pp. 205–9.
Nerlich,  A. G., and Schleicher,  E., 1991, “Identification of Lymph and Blood Capillaries by Immunohistochemical Staining for Various Basement Membrane Components,” Histochemistry, 96, pp. 449–53.
Leak,  L. V., and Burke,  J. F., 1968, “Ultrastructural Studies on the Lymphatic Anchoring Filaments,” J. Cell Biol., 36, pp. 129–149.
Sato,  M., Levesque,  M. J., and Nerem,  R. M., 1987, “An Application of the Micropipette Technique to the Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Cultured Bovine Endothelial Cells,” J. Biomech. Eng., 109, pp. 27–34.
Sato,  M., Theret,  D. P., Wheeler,  L. T., Ohshima,  N., and Nerem,  R. M., 1990, “Application of the Micropipette Technique to the Measurement of Cultured Porcine Aortic Endothelial Cell Viscoelastic Properties,” J. Biomech. Eng., 112, pp. 263–8.
Theret,  D. P., Levesque,  M. J., Sato,  M., Nerem,  R. M., and Wheeler,  L. T., 1988, “The Application of a Homogeneous Half-space Model in the Analysis of Endothelial Cell Micropipette Measurements,” J. Biomech. Eng., 110, pp. 190–199.
Fung, Y. C. 1994. A First Course in Continuum Mechanics, 3rd, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Kwan,  M. K., Lai,  W. M., and Mow,  V. C., 1990, “A Finite Deformation Theory for Cartilage and other Soft Hydrated Connective Tissues-I. Equilibrium Results,” J. Biomech., 23, pp. 145–55.
Barsky,  S. H., Baker,  A., Siegal,  G. P., Togo,  S., and Liotta,  L. A., 1983, “Use of Anti-basement Membrane Antibodies to Distinguish Blood Vessel Capillaries from Lymphatic Capillaries,” Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 7, pp. 667–77.
Casley-Smith,  J. R., 1987, “The Phylogeny of the Fine Structure of Blood Vessels and Lymphatics: Similarities and Differences,” Lymphology, 20, pp. 182–8.
Casley-Smith,  J. R., 1976, “The Functioning and Interrelationships of Blood Capillaries and Lymphatics,” Experientia, 32, pp. 1–12.
Kalima,  T. V., 1973, “Ultrastructure of the Intestinal Lymphatics in Regard to Absorption,” Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 8, pp. 193–196.
Marchetti,  C., Poggi,  P., Cornaglia,  A. I., Farina,  A., and Rizzo,  S., 1999, “Morphologic Characteristics of Initial Lymphatics of the Healthy and Diseased Human Gingiva,” Anat. Rec., 255, pp. 175–179.
Kriehuber,  E., Breiteneder-Geleff,  S., Groeger,  M., Soleiman,  A., Schoppmann,  S. F., Stingl,  G., Kerjaschki,  D., and Maurer,  D., 2001, “Isolation and Characterization of Dermal Lymphatic and Blood Endothelial Cells Reveal Stable and Functionally Specialized Cell Lineages,” J. Exp. Med., 194, pp. 797–808.
Ashton-Key,  M., Cowley,  G. P., and Smith,  M. E., 1996, “Cadherins in Reactive Lymph Nodes and Lymphomas: High Expression in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas,” Histopathology, 28, pp. 55–59.
Unthank,  J. L., and Bohlen,  H. G., 1988, “Lymphatic Pathways and Role of Valves in Lymph Propulsion from Small Intestine,” Am. J. Physiol., 254(Gastrointest., Liver Physiol 17), pp. G389–G398.
Eisenhoffer,  J. A. K. T. K., and Johnston,  M. G., 1995, “Importance of Valves and Lymphangion Contractions in Determining Pressure Gradients in Isolated Lymphatics Exposed to Elevations in Outflow Pressure,” Microvasc. Res., 49, pp. 97–110.
McDonald,  D. M., Thurston,  G., and Baluk,  P., 1999, “Endothelial Gaps as Sites for Plasma Leakage in Inflammation,” Microcirculation , 6, pp. 7–22.
Thurston,  G., Baldwin,  A. L., and Wilson,  L. M., 1995, “Changes in Endothelial Actin Cytoskeleton at Leakage Sites in the Rat Mesenteric Microvasculature,” Am. J. Physiol., 268, pp. H316–H329.
Castenholz,  A., 1984, “Morphological Characteristics of Initial Lymphatics in the Tongue as Shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy,” Scan Electron Microsc., 1984, pp. 1343–1352.
Clough,  G., and Smaje,  L. H., 1978, “Simultaneous Measurement of Pressure in the Interstitium and the Terminal Lymphatics of the Cat Mesentery,” J. Physiol. (London), 283, pp. 457–468.
Wiederhielm,  C. A., and Weston,  B. V., 1973, “Microvascular, Lymphatic and Tissue Pressure in the Unanesthetized Mammal,” Am. J. Physiol., 225, pp. 992–996.
Lee,  J. S., 1986, “Tissue Fluid Pressure, Lymph Pressure, and Fluid Transport in Rat Intestinal Villi,” Microvasc. Res., 31, pp. 170–83.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the cross-section of a junction between two endothelial cell extensions in the wall of an initial lymphatic. The top of the cell represents the lymphatic lumen, the bottom adjacent connective tissue to which the cells are attached by anchoring filaments. The left cell (Cell #1) is assumed to be attached by anchoring filaments in all regions except in the domain from location x=0 until x=L+ΔL, in which it is free to bend into the lumen of the lymphatic. Its deflection into the lumen is w(x). L is the length of the unattached region but without overlap with the extension of cell #2, ΔL is the length of the region with overlap between the two cell extensions. The extension of the right cell (Cell #2) is assumed to be attached everywhere in this diagram by anchoring filaments. p(x) is the fluid pressure through the fluid gap between the two cell extensions with p(L)=pT and p(L+ΔL)=pL.
Grahic Jump Location
Scanning electron micrographs of initial lymphatics in rat cremaster muscle as viewed in inclined sections through the muscle tissue. Panel A: Overview of initial lymphatic channel (LY) located in proximity of arteriolar and venular microvessels (V). The blood vessels and lymphatic channel are sandwiched between several muscle layers (SKM). Note the continuous and highly attenuated endothelium of the partially compressed initial lymphatic. Panel B: Higher magnification views of the inner lumen of initial lymphatics. The specimen was fixed during rest without lymphatic pumping. Note the smooth lymphatic lining without significant openings between lymphatic endothelial cells. Panels C to E: Examples of the inner lumen of initial lymphatics of muscle specimen fixed during active lymph pumping. Note the presence of open gaps in the endothelium (arrows). In some gaps the underlying connective tissue fibers are visible (Panel C). The length of the bar is 30 μm in panel A, 5 μm in panels B to E.
Grahic Jump Location
(A) Top Panel: Cell #1 deflection, w(x), for the case of unattached cell extension L=1 μm and cell overlap ΔL=2 μm and transendothelial fluid pressure ΔP=pT−pL=10 dyn/cm2. (A) Bottom Panel: The fluid pressure drop Δp(x) along the fluid gap from x=L to x=L+ΔL. (B) Relationship between volumetric flowrate Q (equation 8) and the transendothelial pressure drop ΔP=pT−pL. Note the flow rate is equal to zero at negative transendothelial pressure drops, confirming the valve action of the model.
Grahic Jump Location
Cell deflection w(x) for multiple values of the transendothelial pressure drop ΔP (1 dyn/cm2 , 2.5 dyn/cm2 , 5 dyn/cm2 , 10 dyn/cm2 ).
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic diagram of the combined action of primary and secondary lymphatic valves during expansion and compression of a lymphatic channel.
Grahic Jump Location
The volumetric flow rate Q, normalized by its value Q10, at a transendothelial pressure of 10 dyn/cm2 (7.59 10−15 cm3/sec at ΔL=0.5 μm; 7.51 10−15 cm3/sec at ΔL=1 μm; 7.50 10−15 cm3/sec at ΔL=1.5 μm) as a function of the transendothelial pressure ΔP=pT−pL.
Grahic Jump Location
Cell deflections w(x) for (A) different lengths of the region without overlap L and (B) overlap regions with length ΔL (see Figure 1). The transendothelial fluid pressure ΔP=pT−pL=10 dyn/cm2 is constant in this case.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In