0
TECHNICAL PAPERS: Soft Tissues

Biaxial Mechanical Response of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Biomaterials to High In-plane Shear

[+] Author and Article Information
Wei Sun, Michael S. Sacks, Tiffany L. Sellaro

Engineered Tissue Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering

William S. Slaughter

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

Michael J. Scott

Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA

J Biomech Eng 125(3), 372-380 (Jun 10, 2003) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1572518 History: Received April 15, 2002; Revised February 03, 2003; Online June 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Aupart,  M., Babuty,  D., Guesnier,  L., Meurisse,  Y., Sirinelli,  A., and Marchand,  M., 1996, “Double Valve Replacement With the Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial Valve: 10 Year Results,” J. Heart Valve Dis., 5, pp. 312–316.
Cosgrove,  D., 1996, “Carpentier Pericardial Valve,” Semin Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 8(3), pp. 269–275.
Frater,  R., Furlong,  P., Cosgrove,  D., Okies,  J., Colburn,  L., Katz,  A., Lowe,  N., and Ryba,  E., 1998, “Long-term Durability and Patient Functional Status of the Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Pericardial Bioprosthesis in the Aortic Position,” J. Heart Valve Dis., 7, pp. 48–53.
Grunkemeier,  G., and Bodnar,  E., 1995, “Comparative Assessment of Bioprosthesis Durability in the Aortic Position,” J. Heart Valve Dis., 4, pp. 49–55.
Pelletier,  L., Carrier,  M., Leclerc,  Y., and Dyrda,  I., 1995, “The Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial Bioprosthesis: Clinical Experience with 600 Patients,” Ann. Thorac. Surg., 60, pp. S297–302.
Schoen,  F., and Levy,  R., 1994, “Pathology of Substitute Heart Valves,” J. Card. Surg., 9, pp. 222–227.
Schoen, F. J., and Levy, R. J., 1991, “Calcification of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves,” Replacement Cardiac Valves, E. Bodnar and R. W. M. Frater, Eds., Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, pp. 125–148.
Ferrans, V. J., Hilbert, S. L., Fujita, S., Jones, M., and Roberts, W. C., 1991, “Morphologic Abnormalities in Explanted Bioprosthetic Heart Valves,” Cardiovascular Pathology, R. Virmani, J. Atkinson, and J. Fenoglio, Eds., W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 373–398.
Harasaki,  H., Baker,  M., and Zona,  D., 1990, “Cross-linking Agents, Degree of Crosslinkage and Calcifiability in Bioprosthetic Heart Valves,” Transactions of the Society for Biomaterials (abstract), 13, pp. 25.
Pereira,  C. A., Lee,  J. M., and Haberer,  S. A., 1990, “Effect of Alternative Crosslinking Methods on the Low Strain Rate Viscoelastic Properties of Bovine Pericardial Bioprosthetic Material,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 24, pp. 345–361.
Petite,  H., Rault,  I., Huc,  A., Menasche,  P., and Herbage,  D., 1990, “Use of Acyl Azide Method for Cross-linking Collagen Rich Tissues Such as Pericardium,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 24, pp. 179–187.
Vasudev,  S., and Chandy,  T., 1997, “Effect of Alternative Crosslinking Techniques on the Enzymatic Degradation of Bovine Pericardia and Their Calcification,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 35, pp. 357–369.
Bengtsson,  L., Phillips,  R., and Haegerstrand,  A., 1995, “In-Vitro Endothelialization of Photooxidatively Stabilized Xenogenic Pericardium,” Ann. Thorac. Surg., 60, pp. S365–S368.
Moore,  M., Bohachevsky,  I., Cheung,  D., Boyan,  B., Chen,  W., Bickers,  R., and McIlroy,  B., 1994, “Stabilization of Pericardial Tissue by Dye-Mediated Photooxidation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 28, pp. 611–618.
Moore,  M., Chen,  W., Phillips,  R., Bohachevsky,  I., and McIlroy,  B., 1996, “Shrinkage Temperature versus Protein Extraction as a Measure of Stabilization of Photooxidized Tissue,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 32, pp. 209–214.
Moore,  M., McIlroy,  B., and Phillips,  R., 1997, “Nonaldehyde Sterilization of Biologic Tissue for Use in Implantable Medical Devices,” ASAIO J., 43, pp. 23–30.
Schoen,  F., 1998, “Pathological Findings in Explanted Clinical Bioprosthetic Valves Fabricated from Photooxidized Bovine Pericardium,” J. Heart Valve Dis., 7, pp. 174–179.
Sacks,  M. S., 2000, “Biaxial Mechanical Evaluation of Planar Biological Materials,” J. Elast. , 61, pp. 199–246.
Sacks,  M. S., and Chuong,  C. J., 1998, “Orthotropic Mechanical Properties of Chemically Treated Bovine Pericardium,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 26(5), pp. 892–902.
Langdon,  S. E., Chernecky,  R., Pereira,  C. A., Abdulla,  D., and Lee,  J. M., 1999, “Biaxial Mechanical/Structural Effects of Equibiaxial Strain during Crosslinking of Bovine Pericardial Xenograft Materials,” Biomaterials, 20(2), pp. 137–153.
Sacks,  M. S., 1999, “A Method for Planar Biaxial Mechanical Testing That Includes In-plane Shear,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 121(5), pp. 551–555.
Sacks,  M. S., 2000, “A Structural Constitutive Model for Chemically Treated Planar Connective Tissues Under Biaxial Loading,” Comp. Mech., 26(3), pp. 243–249.
Billiar,  K. L., and Sacks,  M. S., 2000, “Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Fresh and Glutaraldehyde Treated Porcine Aortic Valve Cusps: Part II-A Structurally Guided Constitutive Model,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 122(4), pp. 327–335.
Sacks, M. S., “A Structural Constitutive Model for Planar Collagenous Tissues That Integrates SALS-derived Fiber Orientation Data,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., in-press.
Black,  M. M., Howard,  I. C., Huang,  X. C., and Patterson,  E. A., 1991, “A Three-dimensional Analysis of a Bioprosthetic Heart Valve,” J. Biomech., 24, pp. 793–801.
Krucinski,  S., Vesely,  I., Dokainish,  M. A., and Campbell,  G., 1993, “Numerical Simulation of Leaflet Flexure in Bioprosthetic Valves Mounted on Rigid and Expansile Stents,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 929–943.
Spencer, A. J. M., 1980, Continuum Mechanics, Longman Scientific & Technical, NY, 183p.
Fung, Y. C., 1993, Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, 2nd ed., Springer Verlag, New York, p. 568.
Brossollet,  L. J., and Vito,  R. P., 1996, “A New Approach to Mechanical Testing and Modeling of Biological Tissues, With Application to Blood Vessels,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 118, (November), pp. 433–439.
Rousseeuw, P. J., and Leroy, A. M., 1987, Robust Regression and Outlier Detection, Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Applied Probability and Statistics, Wiley, New York, xiv, 329 p.
Zioupos,  P., Barbenel,  J. C., and Fisher,  J., 1994, “Anisotropic Elasticity and Strength of Glutaraldehyde Fixed Bovine Pericardium for Use in Pericardial Bioprosthetic Valves,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 28, pp. 49–57.
Rivlin,  R. S., and Saunders,  D. W., 1951, “Large Elastic Deformations of Isotropic Materials, VII. Experiments on the Deformation of Rubber,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, A243, pp. 251–288.
Humphrey,  J. D., Strumpf,  R. K., and Yin,  F. C., 1990, “Determination of a Constitutive Relation for Passive Myocardium: I. A New Functional Form,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 112(3), pp. 333–339.
Humphrey,  J. D., Strumpf,  R. K., and Yin,  F. C., 1992, “A Constitutive Theory for Biomembranes: Application to Epicardial Mechanics,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 114(4), pp. 461–446.
Curnier,  A., He,  Q. C., and Zysset,  P., 1995, “Conewise Linear Elastic-Materials,” J. Elasti., 37(1), pp. 1–38.
Lanir,  Y., 1994, “Plausibility of Structural Constitutive Equations for Isotropic Soft Tissues in Finite Static Deformations,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 61, pp. 695–702.
Lanir,  Y., 1996, “Plausibility of Structural Constitutive Equations for Swelling Tissues-Implications of the C-N and S-E Conditions,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 118, pp. 10–16.
Truesdell, C., and Noll, W., 1965, “The Nonlinear Field Theories,” Handbuch der Physik, S. Flugge, Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 119–126.
Marsden, J. E., and Hughes, T. J. R., 1983, Mathematical Foundations of Elasticity, Don Mills, Dover, 556 p.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
A representative biaxial mechanical response for each component, with peak shear stresses of 400 kPa and peak shear strains of ±0.10. One novel feature observed was that the mechanical response to the T11:T22=1:0 and 0:1 were quite different from the other protocols. Labels indicate the ratios of the normal Lagrangian stress in the specimen axes coordinate system (T11:T22).
Grahic Jump Location
Representative biaxial response for the in-plane shear response before and after glutaraldehyde fixation, which affected the low-stress (<250 kPa), whereas the remaining higher stress region were comparable.
Grahic Jump Location
Results for the seven parameter Fung model (Q7) applied to (a) the subdivided data set I (r2=0.980) and data set II, demonstrating very good fits (r2=0.963). Inset-biaxial protocols for each set.
Grahic Jump Location
Predictive capability results for the equal-biaxial protocol 1:1 by fitting the seven parameter model (Q7) to the T11:T22=1:0.1 and 0.1:1 protocols only. Even though equal-biaxial protocol lies within the stress and strain ranges used for parameter determination, the interpolated result is poor. For illustration purposes the peak values of S11,S12 and S22, which were 1.4e+5,0.4E+5, and 1.2E+5 kPa, respectively, were truncated.
Grahic Jump Location
Representative response functions for (a) S12 vs. E11 and E12, with E22=0.2, indicating that S12 had a relatively weak dependence on E11. In contrast, the S12 vs. E12 and E22 with E11=0.18 responses shown in (b) indicated that S12 had a strong dependence on both E12 and E22.
Grahic Jump Location
In-plane shear fit results for the eight parameter model (Eq. (5)) fit to (a) data set I only and predicting the set II response, and (b) all data simultaneously. As expected, the fit to set I only demonstrated a better fit to both the inner test protocols (set I), but also demonstrated reasonable predictive capabilities.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) A schematic of the biaxial specimen showing the specimen axes (X1−X2 axes) and material axes (i.e. X1−X2 axes), which was aligned at a 45° angle with respect to the specimen axes. (b) Experimental protocols of stress-control biaxial testing, where the labels indicate the ratios of the normal Lagrangian stress in the specimen axes coordinate system (T11:T22).

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In