Inertial Shear Forces and the Use of Centrifuges in Gravity Research. What is the Proper Control?

[+] Author and Article Information
Jack J. W. A. van Loon

Dutch Experiment Support Center (DESC), Oral Biology, ACTA Vrije Universiteit, van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Erik H. T. E. Folgering

TNO Insitute of Applied Physics, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft, The Netherlands

Carlijn V. C. Bouten

Eindhoven University of Technology, Dept. Biomedical Engineering, Biomechanics & Tissue Engineering, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

J. Paul Veldhuijzen

ACTA Vrije Universiteit, Dept. Oral Biology, Group of Oral Cell Biology, van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Theo H. Smit

Dept. Physics and Medical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

J Biomech Eng 125(3), 342-346 (Jun 10, 2003) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1574521 History: Received March 01, 2002; Revised January 01, 2003; Online June 10, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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Geometry of an Experiment Container (EC) accommodated on a centrifuge and forces within such a rotating system on board a spacecraft in free fall. The centrifuge radius, A, is defined as the distance from the center of rotation to the center of the EC. The minimum radius, B, is the distance from the center of rotation to the center-inner wall of the EC. The maximum radius, C, is the distance from the center of rotation to the outer wall of the EC. Width, D, is the maximum lateral width of an EC. E is EC depth. The force of gravity, Fg, increases radially from the center of centrifugation. The inertial shear force, Fi, increases laterally from the center of centrifugation as depicted in the right EC along a plane surface with a schematic monolayer of cells. Fi is the total resulting force.
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Graphical representation of gravity and inertial shear accelerations as they will be generated in a Type-I EC accommodated on the small centrifuge of the Biopack facility. A: Gravity accelerations. B: Inertial shear. C: Percentage gravity acceleration of total acceleration. The horizontal plate indicates an arbitrary level of 95% gravity acceleration. D: Percentage shear acceleration over total acceleration. All values below the arbitrary plain division indicate the surface area within an experiment container where less than 5% of the total acceleration generates inertial shear.
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Shear strains calculated from a finite element model for an idealized homogeneous isotropic cell accelerated in the center plane (center) of a Type-I experiment container in the Biopack small centrifuge running at 1×g, versus a similar cell located at x = 20 mm from the center plane (border). The absolute deformation of the cell is small, but the peak shear strain in the eccentric cell is more than three times higher than in the cell in the central position (7.98 μstrain vs. 2.37 μstrain, respectively). The related peak shear stress in the eccentrically located cell (0.027 Pa) is likely large enough to provoke a biological response.
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The distribution of non-adherent cells in a 1×g static on-ground centrifuge (A and C) or on a 1×g on-board centrifuge (B and D), in sample chambers of different surface geometry. Note that the mark for ’center of rotation’ and the curvature of the chamber are for clarity of the drawing not on the same scale.




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