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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Joint/Whole Body

A Biomechanical Evaluation of Whiplash Using a Multi-Body Dynamic Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Tanya Garcia, Bahram Ravani

Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engr. and Graduate Program in Biomedical Eng., University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616

J Biomech Eng 125(2), 254-265 (Apr 09, 2003) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1556856 History: Received December 01, 2001; Revised October 01, 2002; Online April 09, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Effect of increasing the initial head separation from the headrest. (a) Neck moments (b) Neck shear and axial forces.
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Effect of changing the initial head angle from extended (−27 deg w.r.t the vertical) to flexed (30 deg w.r.t the vertical). (a) Neck moments (b) Neck shear & axial forces.
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Effect on the change of Delta V on the kinematics (S-shape formation). The pivot labels are shown in 13(a).
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Effect on the change of head separation from the headrest on the kinematics (S-shape formation). The pivot labels are shown in 14(a).
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Effect on the change of head angle w.r.t vertical on the kinematics (S-shape formation). The pivot labels are shown in 15(a).
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Effect of the change of Delta V on neck loads. (a) Neck moments (b) Neck axial and shear forces.
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The model fit to a 95% confidence interval band of the experimental results of 2 cadavers and 1 human volunteer from Mertz and Patrick 2. (a) Neck Torque (b) Head Angular Acceleration (c) Linear P-A Head Acceleration.
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Schematic of the kinematics of the model compared to human volunteer x-ray data from Ono, et al. 10. The gray blocks representing individual vertebra are from the radiographic data and correspond to the upper time segments on the upper axis. The black links are from the model and correspond to the lower time values on the lower axis.
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Schematic depicting the kinematics of the model compared to cadaveric spine from Grauer and Panjabi 12. The upper time values correspond to the cadaver data and lower time values to the model.
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(a) Human volunteer sled accelerations from (Ono, et al., 10); (b) Model accelerations
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(a) Cadaver experimental sled accelerations from (Luan, et al., 13); (b) Model accelerations
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Experimentally determined neck moment from Ono, et al. 10 and Luan, et al. 13 compared to the model
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Experimentally determined neck shear force from Ono, et al. 10 and Luan, et al. 13 compared to the model. Positive values are anterior-to-posterior shear on the link superior to the pivot.
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Experimentally determined neck axial force from Ono, et al. 10 and Luan, et al. 13 compared to the model
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Multi-body/Linkage diagram of the model showing pivot placements
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Curvature of spine in the neutral position
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Multi-body linkage model: definition of reference frames, and generalized coordinates (Q-angles). Link lengths are not to-scale. Angles are approximate to initial positions (see text for exact values).
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The model compared to the volunteer and cadaver data from Mertz and Patrick 2. (a) Neck Torque (Moment at OC) (b) Head Angular Acceleration (c) P-A Acceleration of Head CG.

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