0
TECHNICAL PAPERS: Joint/Whole Body

A Biomechanical Evaluation of Whiplash Using a Multi-Body Dynamic Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Tanya Garcia, Bahram Ravani

Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engr. and Graduate Program in Biomedical Eng., University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616

J Biomech Eng 125(2), 254-265 (Apr 09, 2003) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1556856 History: Received December 01, 2001; Revised October 01, 2002; Online April 09, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Severy, D. M., Mathewson, J. H., and Bechtol, C. O. 1955, “Controlled Automobile Rear-End Collisions, an Investigation of Related Engineering and Medical Phenomena,” Medical Aspects of Traffic Accidents, Proceedings Montreal Conference, pp. 152–184
Mertz, H. J., and Patrick, L. M., 1967, “Investigation of the Kinematics and Kinetics of Whiplash,” SAE Tech. Pap. Ser., Paper Number 670919.
McConnell, W. E., Howard, P. R., Poppel, J. V., et al. 1995, “Human Head and Neck Kinematics after Low Velocity Rear-End Impacts-Understanding “Whiplash,” ” SAE Tech. Pap. Ser., Paper Number 952724.
McConnell, W. E., Howard, P. R., Guzman, H. M., et al. 1993, “Analysis of Human Test Subject Kinematic Responses to Low Velocity Rear End Impacts,” SAE Tech. Pap. Ser., Paper Number 930889.
Szabo,  T. J., and Welcher,  J. B., 1996, “Human Subject Kinematics and Electromyographic Activity During Low Speed Rear Impacts,” SAE Tech. Pap. Ser., Paper Number 96432 295–315.
West, D. H., Gough, J. P., and Harper, G. T. K., 1993, “Low Speed Rear-end Collision Testing Using Human Subjects,” Accident Reconstruction Journal, May/June.
Bailey, M. N., Wong, B. C., and Lawrence, J. M., 1995, “Data Methods for Estimating the Severity of Minor Impacts,” SAE Tech. Pap. Ser., Paper Number 950352.
Siegmund, G. P., King, D. J., Lawrence, J. M., et al. 1997, “Head/Neck Kinematic Response of Human Subjects in Low-Speed Rear-End Collisions,” SAE Tech. Pap. Ser., Paper Number 973341.
Matsushita, T., Sato, T. B., Hirabayashi, K., Fujimura, S., Asazuma, T., and Takatori, T., 1994, “X-Ray Study of the Human Neck Motion Due to Head Inertia Loading,” SAE Tech. Pap. Ser., Paper Number 942208.
Ono, K., Kaneoka, K., Wittek, A., and Kajzer, J., 1997, “Cervical Injury Mechanism Based on the Analysis of Human Cervical Vertebral Motion and Head-Neck-Torso Kinematics During Low Speed Rear Impacts,” SAE Tech. Pap. Ser., Paper Number 973340.
Kaneoka,  K., Ono,  K., Inami,  S., and Hayashi,  K., 1999, “Motion Analysis of Cervical Vertebrae During Whiplash Loading,” Spine, 24(8), pp. 763–770.
Grauer,  J. N., Panjabi,  M. M., Cholewicki,  J. C., Nimu,  K., and Dvorak,  J., 1997, “Whiplash Produces and S-Shaped Curvature of the Neck with Hyperextension at the Lower Levels,” Spine, 22(21), pp. 2489–2494.
Luan,  F., Yang,  K. H., Deng,  B., Begeman,  P. C., Tashman,  S., and King,  A. I., 2000, “Qualitative Analysis of Neck Kinematics During Low-Speed Rear-End Impact.” Clin. Biomech. (Los Angel. Calif.), 15(9), pp. 649–657.
Martinez,  J. L. and Garcia,  D. J., 1968, “A Model for Whiplash,” J. Biomech., 1, pp. 23–32.
McKenzie,  J. A., and Williams,  J. F., 1971, “The Dynamic Behavior of the Head and Cervical Spine During “Whiplash,” ” J. Biomech., 4, pp. 477–490.
Linder,  A., 2000, “A New Mathematical Neck Model for a Low-Velocity Rear-End Impact Dummy: Evaluation of Components Influencing Head Kinematics,” Accid. Anal Prev., 32, pp. 261–9.
TNO Road Vehicles Research Institute, 1997, MADYMO User’s Manual 2D, Version 5.3, Delft, the Netherlands.
Davidsson, J., Deurscher, C., Hell, W., Svensson, M. Y., Linder, A., and Lovsund, P. 1998b, “Human Volunteer Kinematics in Rear-End Sled Collisions,” Proceedings of International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Göteborg, Sweden, pp. 289–302.
Willams, J., and Belytscho, T. 1981, “A Dynamic Model of the Cervial Spine and Head,” Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Lab-Technical Report, AFAMRL-TR-81-5, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Liu, Y. K., Krieger, K. W., Njus, G., Ueno, K., and Connors, M., 1980, “Cervical Spine Stiffness and Geometry of the Young Human Male,” Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Lab-Technical Report, AFAMRL-TR-80-138, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Eddy, W. C., 1976, “Non-linear Biomechanical Model of the Cervical-Thoracic Transregional Joint,” Aerospace Medical Research Lab-Technical Report, AMRL-TR-76-90, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Belytschoko, T., Rencis, M., and Willes, J. “Head-Spine Structure Modeling: Enhancements to Secondary Loading Path: Model and Validation of Head-cervical Spine Model,” Aerospace Medical Research Lab-Technical Report, AAMRL-TR-85-019, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Thunnissen, J., Wismans, J., Ewing, C. L., and Thomas, D. J. 1995, “Human Volunteer Head-Neck Response in Frontal Flexion: A New Analysis,” SAE Paper Number 952721.
Deng,  Y. C., and Goldsmith,  W., 1987, “Response of a Human Head/Neck/Upper-Torso Replica to Dynamic Loading-II. Analytical/Numerical Model,” J. Biomech., 20(5), pp. 487–497.
Kraft,  M., Kullgren,  A., Tingvall,  C., Boström,  O., and Fredriksson,  R., 2000, “How Crash Severity in Rear Impacts Influences Short- and Long-Term Consequences to the Neck,” Accid. Anal Prev., 32, pp. 187–195.
Plagenhoff,  S., Evans,  F. G., and Abdelnour,  T., 1985, “Anatomical Data for Analyzing Human Motion,” Res. Q. Exerc Sport, 54(2), pp. 169–176.
Marieb, E. N. Human Anatomy and Physiology, 3rd Edition, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc., 1995.
Tousignant,  M., de Bellefeuille,  L., O’Donoughue,  S., and Grahovac,  S., 2000, “Criterion Validity of the Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) Goniometer for Cervical Flexion and Extension,” Spine, 25(3), pp. 324–330.
Kane, T. R., and Levinson, D. A. 1996, Dynamics Online: Theory and Implementation with AUTOLEV™, OnLine Dynamics Inc., Sunnyvale, CA.
Loduha,  T. A., and Ravani,  B., 1995, “On First-Order Decoupling of Equations of Motion for Constrained Dynamical Systems,” Transactions of the ASME, 62, pp. 216–222.
Shea,  M., Edwards,  W. T., White,  A. A., and Hayes,  W. C., 1991, “Variations of Stiffness and Strength Along the Human Cervical Spine.” J. Biomech., 24(2), pp. 95–107.
Moroney,  S. P., Schultz,  A. B., Miller,  J. A. A., and Anderson,  G. B. J., 1988, “Load-Displacement Properties of Lower Cervical Spine Motion Segments,” J. Biomech., 21(9), pp. 769–779.
Voo,  L. M., Pintar,  F. A., and Yoganandan,  N., 1998, “Static and Dynamic Bending Responses of the Human Cervical Spine.” J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 693–696.
Bowman, B. M., Schneider, L. W., Lustick, L. S., Anderson W. R., and Thomas, D. J. 1984, “Simulation Analysis of Head and Neck Dynamic Response,” SAE Paper Number 841668.
Foust, D. R., Chaffin, D. B., Snyder, R. G., and Baum, J. 1993, “Cervical Range of Motion and Dynamic Response and Strength of Cervical Muscles,” in: Backaiatis, S. H., ed. Biomechanics of Impact Injury Tolerances of the Head-Neck Complex. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., pp. 1023–35.
Gregor, R. J., Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Movement in: Current Issues in Biomechanics Ed: Grabiner, M.D., Human Kinetics Publishers.
Schuldt,  K., 1988, “On Neck Muscle Activity and Load Reduction in Sitting Postures: An Electromyographic and Biomechanical Study with Applications in Ergonomics and Rehabilitation,” Scand. J. Rehabil. Med. Suppl., 19, pp. 1–49.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Multi-body/Linkage diagram of the model showing pivot placements
Grahic Jump Location
Curvature of spine in the neutral position
Grahic Jump Location
Multi-body linkage model: definition of reference frames, and generalized coordinates (Q-angles). Link lengths are not to-scale. Angles are approximate to initial positions (see text for exact values).
Grahic Jump Location
The model compared to the volunteer and cadaver data from Mertz and Patrick 2. (a) Neck Torque (Moment at OC) (b) Head Angular Acceleration (c) P-A Acceleration of Head CG.
Grahic Jump Location
The model fit to a 95% confidence interval band of the experimental results of 2 cadavers and 1 human volunteer from Mertz and Patrick 2. (a) Neck Torque (b) Head Angular Acceleration (c) Linear P-A Head Acceleration.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the kinematics of the model compared to human volunteer x-ray data from Ono, et al. 10. The gray blocks representing individual vertebra are from the radiographic data and correspond to the upper time segments on the upper axis. The black links are from the model and correspond to the lower time values on the lower axis.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic depicting the kinematics of the model compared to cadaveric spine from Grauer and Panjabi 12. The upper time values correspond to the cadaver data and lower time values to the model.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Human volunteer sled accelerations from (Ono, et al., 10); (b) Model accelerations
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Cadaver experimental sled accelerations from (Luan, et al., 13); (b) Model accelerations
Grahic Jump Location
Experimentally determined neck moment from Ono, et al. 10 and Luan, et al. 13 compared to the model
Grahic Jump Location
Experimentally determined neck shear force from Ono, et al. 10 and Luan, et al. 13 compared to the model. Positive values are anterior-to-posterior shear on the link superior to the pivot.
Grahic Jump Location
Experimentally determined neck axial force from Ono, et al. 10 and Luan, et al. 13 compared to the model
Grahic Jump Location
Effect on the change of Delta V on the kinematics (S-shape formation). The pivot labels are shown in 13(a).
Grahic Jump Location
Effect on the change of head separation from the headrest on the kinematics (S-shape formation). The pivot labels are shown in 14(a).
Grahic Jump Location
Effect on the change of head angle w.r.t vertical on the kinematics (S-shape formation). The pivot labels are shown in 15(a).
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of the change of Delta V on neck loads. (a) Neck moments (b) Neck axial and shear forces.
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of increasing the initial head separation from the headrest. (a) Neck moments (b) Neck shear and axial forces.
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of changing the initial head angle from extended (−27 deg w.r.t the vertical) to flexed (30 deg w.r.t the vertical). (a) Neck moments (b) Neck shear & axial forces.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In