In-Vivo Measurement of Dynamic Joint Motion Using High Speed Biplane Radiography and CT: Application to Canine ACL Deficiency

[+] Author and Article Information
Scott Tashman, William Anderst

Bone and Joint Center, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W. Grand Blvd., Detroit, MI 48202

J Biomech Eng 125(2), 238-245 (Apr 09, 2003) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1559896 History: Received October 01, 2001; Revised October 01, 2002; Online April 09, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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Grahic Jump Location
An overhead diagram of the biplane radiographic imaging system, configured for treadmill testing. 3D imaging can occur in the area where the two X-ray beams intersect.
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Biplane radiographic images of a canine hindlimb, from a representative frame acquired during treadmill gait. The images have been corrected for nonuniformity and distortion, as described in the text. Three implanted tantalum markers can be clearly seen in each bone. The connector and wire for the skin mounted accelerometer (used to detect pawstrike) are also visible.
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Two local coordinate systems for the right femur (a) and tibia (b) are determined from the CT-generated 3D bone models. A marker-based orthogonal femur coordinate system (FMX, FMY, FMZ) is determined using cross products of the vectors defined by the implanted markers. An anatomically based orthogonal femur coordinate system (FAX, FAY, FAZ) is defined using the positions of the lateral and medial femoral condyles (FlatP, FmedP) and the center of the femoral head (FHP). For the tibia, marker-based (TMX, TMY, TMZ) and anatomical (TAX, TAY, TAZ) coordinate systems are defined similarly, using the lateral and medial borders of the tibial plateau (TlatP, TmedP) and the center of the distal tibia (TdistP).
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A canine test in progress. Acrylic side-rails were used to maintain proper hindlimb positioning. Note the open nature of the system configuration, enabling a variety of movement tasks to be performed in the imaging space.
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Knee translation vs. time for a typical dog (Dog 1). Translations are of the tibia relative to the femur (from ACL origin to insertion), expressed in the tibial anatomical coordinate system. Three ACL-intact trials (dashed lines) and three ACL-deficient trials are superimposed. The vertical dashed line indicates pawstrike (the beginning of the stance phase). Note the dramatic increase in anterior tibial translation after ACL loss.
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Knee rotation vs. time for a typical dog (Dog 1). Rotations are of the tibia relative to the femur, expressed in the joint coordinate system as defined by Grood and Suntay 27. Three ACL-intact trials (dashed lines) and three ACL-deficient trials are superimposed. The vertical dashed line indicates pawstrike (the beginning of the stance phase). Note that the flexion pattern differed between ACL-deficient trials, most likely due to an altered gait pattern during one of the trials.
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3D reconstruction of tibio-femoral position for a typical dog (Dog 1). Subject-specific bone geometry was combined with kinematic data (from RSA) at 100 ms after paw-strike. After ACL loss (right image), the tibia is shifted anteriorly relative to the femur.
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ACL origin-insertion distance vs. time for a typical dog (Dog 1). The origin and insertion of the ACL were identified and marked on the 3D CT bone models. This enabled dynamic tracking of these bone locations from the marker kinematic data, and subsequent calculation of the 3D distance between these points for every motion frame. With the ACL intact (dashed lines), this distance remained nearly constant. After ACL loss, a consistent displacement between these points was observed. Three trials are superimposed for each condition.




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