The Extent and Distribution of Cell Death and Matrix Damage in Impacted Chondral Explants Varies with the Presence of Underlying Bone

[+] Author and Article Information
J. A. Krueger, P. Thisse, B. J. Ewers, R. C. Haut

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824

D. Dvoracek-Driksna, M. W. Orth

Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824

J Biomech Eng 125(1), 114-119 (Feb 14, 2003) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1536654 History: Received July 01, 2001; Revised July 01, 2002; Online February 14, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Brandt,  K. D., Mankin,  H. J., and Shulman,  L. E., 1986, “Workshop on Etiopathogenesis of Osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol., 13, pp. 1126–1160.
Blanco,  F. J., Guitian,  R., Vazquez-Martul,  E., de Toro,  F. J., and Galdo,  F., 1998, “Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes Die by Apoptosis: A Possible Pathway for Osteoarthritis Pathology,” Arthritis and Rheumatology, 41 , pp. 284–289.
Buckwater,  J. A., 1995, “Osteoarthritis and Articular Cartilage Use, Disuse, and Abuse: Experimental Studies,” J. Rheumatol., Suppl., 43, pp. 13–15.
Simon,  W. H., Richardson,  S., Herman,  W., Parson,  J. R., and Lane,  J., 1976, “Long-Term Effects of Chondrocyte Death on Rabbit Articular Cartilage In Vivo,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol., 58, pp. 517–526.
Kim,  H. A., Lee,  Y. J., Seong,  S. C., Choe,  K. W., and Song,  Y. W., 2000, “Apoptotic Chondrocyte Death in Human Osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol., 27(2), pp. 455–62.
States, J. D., 1970, “Traumatic Arthritis—A Medical and Legal Dilemma,” Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the American Association for Automotive Medicine, pp. 21–28.
Wright,  V., 1990, “Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis—A Medico-Legal Minefield,” Br. J. Rheumatol., 29, pp. 474–478.
Newberry,  W. N., Mackenzie,  C. D., and Haut,  R. C., 1998, “Blunt Impact Causes Changes in Bone and Cartilage in a Regularly Exercised Animal Model,” J. Orthop. Res., 16, pp. 348–354.
Thompson,  R. C., Oegema,  T. R., Lewis,  J. L., and Wallace,  L., 1991, “Osteoarthritic Changes After Acute Transarticular Load: An Animal Model,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 73A, pp. 990–1001.
Torzilli,  P. A., Grigiene,  R., Borrelli,  J., and Helfet,  D. L., 1999, “Effect of Impact Load on Articular Cartilage: Cell Metabolism and Viability, and Matrix Water Content,” J. Biomech. Eng., 121, pp. 433–441.
Quinn,  T. M., Allen,  R. G., Schalet,  B. J., Perumbuli,  P., and Hunziker,  E. B., 2001, “Matrix and Cell Injury Due to Sub-Impact Loading of Adult Bovine Articular Cartilage Explants: Effects of Strain Rate and Peak Stress,” J. Orthop. Res., 19, pp. 242–249.
Jeffery,  J. E., Gregory,  D. W., and Aspden,  R. M., 1995, “Matrix Damage and Chondrocyte Viability Following a Single Blunt Impact Load on Articular Cartilage,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 322, pp. 87–96.
Clements,  K. M., Bee,  Z. C., Crossingham,  G. V., Adams,  M. A., and Shariff,  M., 2001, “How Severe must Repetitive Loading be to Kill Chondrocytes in Articular Cartilage?” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 9, pp. 499–507.
Ewers,  B. J., Dvoracek-Driskna,  D., Orth,  M. W., and Haut,  R. C., 2000, “The Extent of Matrix Damage and Chondrocyte Death in Mechanically Traumatized Articular Cartilage Explants Depends on Rate of Loading,” J. Orthop. Res., 19, pp. 779–784.
Finlay,  J. B., and Repo,  R. U., 1978, “Cartilage Impact In Vitro: Effect of Bone and Cement,” J. Biomech., 11(8–9), pp. 379–88.
Grubbs,  F. E., and Beck,  G., 1972, “Extension of Sample Sizes and Percentage Points for Significance Tests of Outlying Observations,” Technometrics, 14, pp. 847–854.
Atkinson,  T. S., Haut,  R. C., and Altiero,  N. J., 1998, “Impact-Induced Fissuring of Articular Cartilage: An Investigation of Failure Criteria,” J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 181–187.
Repo,  R. U., and Finlay,  J. B., 1977, “Survival of Articular Cartilage after Controlled Impact,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. Vol., 59, pp. 1068–1076.
Guilak,  F., Ratcliffe,  A., and Mow,  V. C., 1995, “Chondrocyte Deformation and Local Tissue Strain in Articular Cartilage: A Confocal Microscopy Study,” J. Orthop. Res., 13, pp. 410–21.
Mow,  V. C., Kuei,  S., Lai,  W., and Armstrong,  C., 1980, “Biphasic Creep and Stress Relaxation of Articular Cartilage in Compression: Theory and Experiments,” J. Biomech. Eng., 102, pp. 73–84.
DiSilvestro,  M. R., Qilang,  Z., Wong,  M., Jurvelin,  J. S., and Suh,  J. F., 2001, “Biphasic Poroviscoelastic Simulation of the Unconfined Compression of Articular Cartilage: I—Simultaneous Prediction of Reaction Force and Lateral Displacement,” J. Biomech. Eng., 123, pp. 191–197.
Schinagl,  R. M., Gurskis,  D., Chen,  A. C., and Sah,  R. L., 1997, “Depth-Dependent Confined Compression Modulus of Full-Thickness Bovine Articular Cartilage,” J. Orthop. Res., 15, pp. 499–506.
Chen,  A. C., Bae,  W. C., Schinagl,  R. M., and Sah,  R. L., 2001, “Depth- and Strain-Dependent Mechanical and Electromechanical Properties of Full-Thickness Bovine Articular Cartilage in Confined Compression,” J. Biomech., 34, pp. 1–12.


Grahic Jump Location
Average stress-strain plots for cartilage and osteochondral explants were constructed following (a) low rate and (b) high rate of loading tests. Osteochondral explants had a shift to the left resulting in a stiffer response under compressive impact load for both rate of loading tests.
Grahic Jump Location
Gross photographs were used to determine the average total fissure length for chondral explants following (a) low and (c) high rate impacts. Less fissuring was found in osteochondral explants after (b) low and (d) high rate of loading tests when compared to chondral explants.
Grahic Jump Location
Photographs of chondral explant cross-sections were taken after (a) low and (c) high rate of loading tests. Deeper fissures were found in chondral explants than osteochondral explants following both (b) low and (d) high rate of loading tests. Note that the superficial, intermediate and deep zones of cartilage have been highlighted along with the typical appearances of fissures in these tests.
Grahic Jump Location
In osteochondral explants, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of cell death following low rate of loading tests in the superficial (p=0.046) and middle zones (p=0.006) (+), and in the middle zone (p=0.041) following a high rate of loading test ( * ), compared to chondral explants.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In