0
TECHNICAL BRIEFS

Apparatus for Measuring the Swelling Dependent Electrical Conductivity of Charged Hydrated Soft Tissues

[+] Author and Article Information
W. Y. Gu, M. A. Justiz

Tissue Biomechanics Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124

J Biomech Eng 124(6), 790-793 (Dec 27, 2002) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1516571 History: Received May 01, 2001; Revised July 01, 2002; Online December 27, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bassett,  C. A. L., and Pawluk,  R. J., 1972, “Electrical Behavior of Cartilage During Loading,” Science, 178, pp. 982–983.
Chen,  A. C., Nguyen,  T. T., and Sah,  R. L., 1997, “Streaming Potential During the Confined Compression Creep Test of Normal and Proteoglycan-depleted Cartilage,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 25, pp. 269–277.
Frank,  E. H., and Grodzinsky,  A. J., 1987, “Cartilage Electromechanics—I. Electrokinetic Transduction and the Effects of Electrolyte pH and Ionic Strength,” J. Biomech., 20, pp. 615–627.
Frank,  E. H., and Grodzinsky,  A. J., 1987, “Cartilage Electromechanics—II. A Continuum Model of Cartilage Electrokinetics and Correlation with Experiments” J. Biomech., 20, pp. 629–639.
Frank,  E. H., Grodzinsky,  A. J., Koob,  T. J., and Eyre,  D. R., 1987, “Streaming Potentials: A Sensitive Index of Enzymatic Degeneration in Articular Cartilage,” J. Orthop. Res., 5, pp. 497–508.
Grodzinsky,  A. J., 1983, “Electromechanical and Physical Properties of Connective Tissue,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 9, pp. 133–199.
Grodzinsky,  A. J., Lipshitz,  H., and Glimcher,  M. J., 1978, “Electromechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage During Compression and Stress Relaxation,” Nature (London), 275, pp. 448–450.
Gu,  W. Y., Lai,  W. M., and Mow,  V. C., 1993, “Transport of Fluid and Ions Through a Porous-permeable Charged-hydrated Tissue, and Streaming Potential Data on Normal Bovine Articular Cartilage,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 709–723.
Gu,  W. Y., Mao,  X. G., Rawlins,  B. A., Iatridis,  J. C., Foster,  R. J., Sun,  D. N., Weidenbaum,  M., and Mow,  V. C., 1999, “Streaming Potential of Human Lumbar Annulus Fibrosus is Anisotropic and Affected by Disc Degeneration,” J. Biomech., 32, pp. 1177–1182.
Lee,  R. C., Frank,  E. H., Grodzinsky,  E. H., and Roylance,  D. K., 1981, “Oscillatory Compressional Behavior of Articular Cartilage and its Associated Electromechanical Properties,” J. Biomech. Eng., 103, pp. 280–292.
Lotke,  P. A., Black,  J., and Richardson,  S. J., 1974, “Electromechanical Properties in Human Articular Cartilage,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 56, pp. 1040–1046.
Maroudas,  A., 1968, “Physicochemical Properties of Cartilage in the Light of Ion Exchange Theory,” Biophycal Jounal, 8, pp. 575–595.
Chammas, P., 1989, “Electromechanical Coupling in Articular Cartilage: An Electromechanical Micromodel and Experimental Results,” MS thesis, Boston University, Boston, MA.
Chammas,  P., Federspiel,  W. J., and Eisenberg,  S. R., 1994, “A Microcontinuum Model of Electrokinetic Coupling in the Extracellular Matrix: Pertubation Formulation and Solution,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 168, pp. 526–538.
Eisenberg,  S. R., and Grodzinsky,  A. J., 1988, “Electrokinetic Micromodel of Extracellular-Matrix and other Polyelectrolyte Networks,” PhysicoChem. Hydrodyn., 10, pp. 517–539.
Frank, E. H., Grodzinsky, A. J., Phillips, S. L., and Grimshaw, P. E., in “Biomechanics of Diarthrodial Joints” (V. C. Mow, A. Ratcliffe, and S. L.-Y. Woo, eds), p. 261. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990.
Gu,  W. Y., Lai,  W. M., Mow,  V. C., 1998, “A Mixture Theory for Charged-hydrated Soft Tissues Containing Multi-electrolytes: Passive Transport and Swelling Behaviors,” J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 169–180.
Hasegawa,  I., Kuriki,  S., Matsuno,  S., Matsumoto,  G., 1983, “Dependence of Electrical Conductivity on Fixed Charge Density in Articular Cartilage,” Clinical Orthop Res, 177, pp. 283–288.
Helfferich, F., 1962, Ion Exchange, McGraw Hill, New York.
Lai,  W. M., Mow,  V. C., Sun,  D. D., Ateshian,  G. A., 2000, “On the Electric Potentials Inside a Charged Soft Hydrated Biological Tissue: Streaming Potential Versus Diffusion Potential,” J. Biomech. Eng., 122, pp. 336–346.
Lee, R. C., 1982, “Cartilage Electromechanics: The Relationship pf Physicochemical to Mechanical Properties,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Keithley 2400 Series SourceMeter User’s Manual. Keithley Instruments, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Third Printing, April 1999. Document Number: 2400S-900-01 Rev. C.
Gu, W. Y., Lewis, B., Lai, W. M., Ratcliffe, A., Mow, V. C., 1996, “A Technique for Measuring Volume and True Density of the Solid Matrix of Cartilaginous Tissues,” Advance in Bioengineering, ASME, New York, ed by S. Rastegar, BED33: 89–90.
Bull,  H. B., and Breese,  K., 1969, “Electrical Conductance of Protein Solutions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 29, pp. 492–495.
Schepps,  J. L., and Foster,  K. R., 1980, “The UHF and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Normal and Tumour Tissues: Variation in Dielectric Properties with Tissue Water Content,” Phys. Med. Biol., 25, pp. 1149–1159.
Mackie,  J. S., and Meares,  P., 1955, “The Diffusion of Electrolytes in a Cation-exchange Resin. I. Theoretical,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 232, pp. 498–509.
Maroudas,  A., Weinberg,  P. D., Parker,  K. H., and Winlove,  C. P., 1988, “The Distributions and Diffusivities of Small Ions in Chondroitin Sulphate, Hyaluronate and Some Proteoglycan Solutions,” Biophys. Chem., 32, pp. 257–270.
Parker,  K. H., Winlove,  C. P., and Maroudas,  A., 1988, “The Theoretical Distributions and Diffusivities of Small Ions in Chondroitin Sulphate and Hyaluronate,” Biophys. Chem., 32, pp. 271–282.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic representation of the four-wire method for measuring the resistance of hydrated soft tissue.
Grahic Jump Location
Photograph of custom designed conductivity apparatus: (1) plexiglass chamber; (2) upper current electrode; (3) IVD specimen; (4) lower current electrode; (5) voltage-sensing Ag/AgCl electrode; (6) digital micrometer; (7) current-sensing circuit.
Grahic Jump Location
Resistance of conductivity standard (0.1 M KCl, 11.82 mS/cm @20.6°C) measured by apparatus at different heights (mean±SD,n=5); linear theoretical curve shown for comparison.
Grahic Jump Location
Linear correlation between specific conductivity and water content (volume fraction) for porcine AF specimens (58 measurements).

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In