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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Axial Injury Tolerance of the Human Foot/Ankle Complex and the Effect of Achilles Tension

[+] Author and Article Information
James R. Funk, Jeff R. Crandall, Lisa J. Tourret, Conor B. MacMahon, Cameron R. Bass, James T. Patrie

Automobile Safety Laboratory, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, University of Virginia, 1011 Linden Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22902

Nopporn Khaewpong, Rolf H. Eppinger

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation, 400 7th Street SW, Washington, DC 20590

J Biomech Eng 124(6), 750-757 (Dec 27, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1514675 History: Received December 01, 2000; Revised July 01, 2002; Online December 27, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

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Figures

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Schematic of the test apparatus. Achilles gripper, pretensioner, and energy absorber were used to experimentally simulate active muscle tension.
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Picture of Achilles tendon gripping device.
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Representative time histories of axial forces in a test with Achilles tension (6F)
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X-rays of typical injuries showing calcaneal fracture (a) from test 5I and tibial pilon fracture (b) from test 6F
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Representative axial load time histories and acoustic emission in a specimen sustaining a calcaneal fracture (6L)
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Representative axial load time histories and acoustic emission in a specimen sustaining a tibial pilon fracture (8D)
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Representative axial load time histories and acoustic emission in a specimen sustaining no injury (6I)
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Injury risk functions for the American 5th percentile female (A5F) and American 50th percentile male (A50M) at two different ages assuming no Achilles tension
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Injury risk functions for a 65 year-old American 50th percentile male (A50M) at varying levels of Achilles tension

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