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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Three-dimensional, Unsteady Simulation of Alveolar Respiration

[+] Author and Article Information
Vladimir V. Kulish

School of Mechanical & Production Engng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798

José L. Lage

Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0337

Connie C. W. Hsia, Robert L. Johnson

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235-9034

J Biomech Eng 124(5), 609-616 (Sep 30, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1504445 History: Received December 01, 2000; Revised May 01, 2002; Online September 30, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Roughton,  F. J. W., and Foster,  R. E., 1957, “Relative Importance of Diffusion and Chemical Reaction Rates in Determining the Rate of Exchange of Gases in the Human Lung, with Special Reference to True Diffusing Capacity of the Pulmonary Membrane and Volume of Blood in Lung Capillaries,” J. Appl. Physiol., 11, pp. 290–302.
Weibel,  E. R., 1970, “Morphometric Estimation of Pulmonary Diffusion Capacity. I. Model and Method,” Respir. Physiol., 11, pp. 54–75.
Crapo,  J. D., and Crapo,  R. O., 1983, “Comparison of Total Lung Diffusion Capacity and the Membrane Component of Diffusion Capacity as Determined by Physiologic and Morphometric Techniques,” Respir. Physiol., 51, pp. 183–194.
Crapo,  J. D., Crapo,  R. O., Jensen,  R. L., Mercer,  R. R., and Weibel,  E. R., 1988, “Evaluation of Lung Diffusing Capacity by Physiological and Morphometric Techniques,” J. Appl. Physiol., 64, pp. 2083–2091.
Fedrespiel,  W. J., 1989, “Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: Implications of Two-phase Blood Flow in Capillaries,” Respir. Physiol., 77, pp. 119–134.
Weibel,  E. R., Federspiel,  W. J., Fryder-Doffey,  F., Hsia,  C. C. W., Konig,  M., Stalder-Navarro,  V., and Vock,  R., 1993, “Morphometric Model or Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity. I. Membrane Diffusing Capacity,” Respir. Physiol., 93, pp. 125–149.
Hsia,  C. C. W., Chuong,  C. J. C., and Johnson,  R. L., 1995, “Critique of Conceptual Basis of Diffusing Capacity Estimates: a Finite Element Analysis,” J. Appl. Physiol., 79, pp. 1039–1047.
Johnson,  R. L., Spicer,  W. S., Bishop,  J. M., and Forster,  R. E., 1960, “Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Flow, and Diffusing Capacity During Exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol., 15, pp. 893–902.
Newth,  C. J. L., Cotton,  D. J., and Nadel,  J. A., 1977, “Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity Measured at Multiple Intervals During a Single Exhalation in Man,” J. Appl. Physiol., 43, pp. 617–625.
, 1987, “Single Breath Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (Transfer Factor): Recommendations for a Standard Technique,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 136, pp. 1299–1307.
Koulich,  V. V., Lage,  J. L., Hsia,  C. C. W., and Johnson,  R. L., 1999, “A Porous Medium Model of Alveolar Gas Diffusion,” Journal of Porous Media 2, pp. 263–275.
Comroe, J. H., Forster, R. E., Dubuis, A. B., Briscoe, W. A., and Carlsen, E., 1962, The Lung Clinical Physiology and Pulmonary Functions Tests, Year Book Medical Publisher, Chicago, pp. 117–121.
Koulich, V. V., 1999, Heat and Mass Diffusion in Microscale: Fractals, Brownian Motion, and Fractional Calculus, Ph.D. Dissertation, Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas.

Figures

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Scanning electron micrograph of the alveolar region of the lungs (dog), showing the architecture of alveoli. (Courtesy of Ewald R. Weibel, University of Bern, Switzerland.)
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Schematic representation of the alveolar region: (a) microscopic level, with all individual constituents; (b) intermediate level, as a representative elementary volume, REV, domain.
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Time evolution of γ=ln[〈P〉ν0/〈P〉ν(t)], for ρ=3.4% and normal (random) RBC distribution. The dashed-line, showing the results from Eq. (10) using DL=2.13×10−9 m3/sPa, depict the deviation to Krogh’s equation.
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Time evolution of γ=ln[〈P〉ν0/〈P〉ν(t)], for ρ=3.4%: comparison of normal (random) and uniform RBC distributions
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Schematic representation of corner- and center-cluster RBC distributions. The cubes represent the clustered RBC sites where 〈P〉 is always equal to zero
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Time-evolution of isoconcentration surface 〈P〉=0.1 Torr, for the case of RBC’s clustered in the center of the domain. As the CO is progressively consumed by the RBC’s in the cluster, the isoconcentration surface expands toward the boundaries of the domain where the gas concentration is higher.
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Time-evolution of isoconcentration surface 〈P〉=0.1 Torr, for the case of RBC’s clustered in the lower corner of the domain. As the CO is progressively consumed by the RBC’s in the cluster, the isoconcentration surface expands toward the boundaries of the domain where the gas concentration is higher.
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Time evolution of γ=ln[〈P〉ν0/〈P〉ν(t)]: comparison of results from center-cluster and corner-cluster RBC distributions, for ρ=3.4%.
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Transient diffusion: comparison of uniform, normal, center-cluster, and corner-cluster red cell distributions, for ρ=3.4%.
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Normalized lung diffusion coefficient versus normalized distribution radius, ρ=3.4%

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