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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Three-dimensional, Unsteady Simulation of Alveolar Respiration

[+] Author and Article Information
Vladimir V. Kulish

School of Mechanical & Production Engng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798

José L. Lage

Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0337

Connie C. W. Hsia, Robert L. Johnson

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235-9034

J Biomech Eng 124(5), 609-616 (Sep 30, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1504445 History: Received December 01, 2000; Revised May 01, 2002; Online September 30, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Scanning electron micrograph of the alveolar region of the lungs (dog), showing the architecture of alveoli. (Courtesy of Ewald R. Weibel, University of Bern, Switzerland.)
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Schematic representation of the alveolar region: (a) microscopic level, with all individual constituents; (b) intermediate level, as a representative elementary volume, REV, domain.
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Time evolution of γ=ln[〈P〉ν0/〈P〉ν(t)], for ρ=3.4% and normal (random) RBC distribution. The dashed-line, showing the results from Eq. (10) using DL=2.13×10−9 m3/sPa, depict the deviation to Krogh’s equation.
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Time evolution of γ=ln[〈P〉ν0/〈P〉ν(t)], for ρ=3.4%: comparison of normal (random) and uniform RBC distributions
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Schematic representation of corner- and center-cluster RBC distributions. The cubes represent the clustered RBC sites where 〈P〉 is always equal to zero
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Time-evolution of isoconcentration surface 〈P〉=0.1 Torr, for the case of RBC’s clustered in the center of the domain. As the CO is progressively consumed by the RBC’s in the cluster, the isoconcentration surface expands toward the boundaries of the domain where the gas concentration is higher.
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Time-evolution of isoconcentration surface 〈P〉=0.1 Torr, for the case of RBC’s clustered in the lower corner of the domain. As the CO is progressively consumed by the RBC’s in the cluster, the isoconcentration surface expands toward the boundaries of the domain where the gas concentration is higher.
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Time evolution of γ=ln[〈P〉ν0/〈P〉ν(t)]: comparison of results from center-cluster and corner-cluster RBC distributions, for ρ=3.4%.
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Transient diffusion: comparison of uniform, normal, center-cluster, and corner-cluster red cell distributions, for ρ=3.4%.
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Normalized lung diffusion coefficient versus normalized distribution radius, ρ=3.4%

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