An Automated Approach for Direct Measurement of Two-Dimensional Strain Distributions Within Articular Cartilage Under Unconfined Compression

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher C-B. Wang, Jian-Ming Deng, Gerard A. Ateshian, Clark T. Hung

Cellular Engineering Laboratory and Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

J Biomech Eng 124(5), 557-567 (Sep 30, 2002) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1503795 History: Received May 01, 2001; Revised May 01, 2002; Online September 30, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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Images of cartilage sample surface before (a, c) and after loading (b, d). All images were taken for the same sample using either fluorescence (a, b) or transmitted light (c, d) microscopy. The frames in the figure illustrate the template or subset used in optimized DIC.
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Olympus IX-70 inverted microscope and the custom unconfined compression loading device.
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The effects of template size on the optimized DIC procedures are presented in (a). A 40×40 pixel template size represents a good compromise between the needs to achieve the desired accuracy and efficiency. Measured (the dots) and superimposed (the meash) axial displacement and displacement gradient for numerical experiment with quadratic displacement function are presented in (b) and (c). The shaded surface in (b) represents the thin-plate spline smoothing (TPSS) surface of the measured results; the surface in (c) is generated from the derivation of the TPSS surface. All dimensions in the figure are pixels unless otherwise specified.
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Displacement fields measured from a typical cartilage sample surface using either fluorescence (○) or transmitted light (+) microscopy. The shaded surfaces are the TPSS surface for the measured displacements. There are two sets of surfaces presented in the figure: one set of surfaces are the smoothed surfaces for results measured from fluorescent images and the other from transmitted light images. Clearly they correspond very well to each other.
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The axial strains measured using optimized DIC (the dots) and calculated from the smooth fitting spline (the surface).
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The strain fields inside a typical cartilage specimen under 5, 10, and 15% compression.
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The depth-dependent apparent properties determined for 21 specimens at 10, 15 and 25% compression. Z=0 corresponds to the articular surface.
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The average apparent properties determined from platen-to-platen measurements for all 21 specimens at 5, 10, 15, 25% compression. Statistics were performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc tests.




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