Influence of the Lateral Ventricles and Irregular Skull Base on Brain Kinematics due to Sagittal Plane Head Rotation

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Ivarsson, P. Lövsund

Crash Safety Division, Department of Machine and Vehicle Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden

D. C. Viano

Crash Safety Division, Department of Machine and Vehicle Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden,General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48090-9055, USA,Saab Automobile AB, SE-461 80 Trollhättan, Sweden

J Biomech Eng 124(4), 422-431 (Jul 30, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1485752 History: Received October 01, 2001; Revised April 01, 2002; Online July 30, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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Single markers (AF, MF and V) and three-point configurations (IC, SC and FC) of markers (a, b and c) selected for motion analysis. The dashed line indicates the skull base contour in model SSBV. The ellipse shows the contour and location of the ventricle substitute. “a” is the central marker in each three-point configuration. The grid space within the three-point configurations is 9 mm both in x- and y-direction except for configuration FC for which the y-distance between markers “a” and “c” is 11 mm. The (x, y)-positions in mm of the central markers “a” in configurations IC, SC and FC are (0, 36), (0, 78) and (45, 45) whereas corresponding positions of markers AF and V are (54, 40) and (0, 92). Marker positions are consistent across models except for marker MF. The (x, y)-position of marker MF is (36, 18) in models HSB and HSBV (indicated by filled MF-marker) and (36, 36) in model SSBV (indicated by unfilled MF-marker). The origin of the coordinate system coincides with the model center of rotation (Fig. 2b). The x-axis of the coordinate system coincides with the posterior-anterior direction whereas the y-axis coincides with the inferior-superior direction.
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Results from the experiments with the three models. Each curve is determined as the average from 5 repeated tests. (a): x-displacement of the middle fossa marker. (b): x-displacement of the anterior fossa marker. (c): x-displacement of the vertex marker. (d): x-displacement of the central marker in the inferior configuration. (e): inferior configuration shear strain. (f): inferior configuration principal strains. (g): x-displacement of the central marker in the superior configuration. (h): superior configuration shear strain. (i): superior configuration principal strains. (j): x-displacement of the central marker in the frontal configuration. (k): frontal configuration shear strain. (l): frontal configuration principal strains.
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Relative x-displacement (posterior-anterior direction) and y-displacement (inferior-superior direction) between the c-markers in configurations IC and SC for models HSB and HSBV. Each curve represents the average of five repeated tests.
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Sagittal cross section of the inferior part of a human skull and the two surrogate skull bases. The black line on the skull represents the contour used for machining the humanlike skull base. The numbers refer to the following anatomical landmarks: 1) the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, 2) the deep compartment of the middle cranial fossa, 3) the sella turcica and 4) the ridge formed by the Petrous portion of the temporal bone. The surrogate skull bases have approximately the same anterior radius R of 10 mm as the human skull.
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(a) Model SSBV under construction. The elliptical cylinder placed in the gel works as mould core for the ventricle substitute and is to be removed and replaced by liquid paraffin after the second layer of gel has cured; (b) Model HSBV. The arc arrow indicates the acceleration direction. CR indicates the center of rotation.
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The test set-up. A physical model is mounted on the rotation table.
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Angular acceleration as function of time from pendulum impact.




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