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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Microscopic Velocimetry With a Scaled-Up Model for Evaluating a Flow Field Over Cultured Endothelial Cells

[+] Author and Article Information
Shuichiro Fukushima, Takaaki Deguchi

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522, Japan

Makoto Kaibara

Biopolymer Physics Laboratory, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, 351-0106, Japan

Kotaro Oka, Kazuo Tanishita

Department of System Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522, Japan

J Biomech Eng 124(2), 176-179 (Mar 29, 2002) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1449490 History: Received September 01, 2001; Revised October 01, 2001; Online March 29, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Nerem,  R. M., 1993, “Hemodynamics and the Vascular Endothelium,” J. Biomech. Eng., 115, pp. 510–514.
Davies,  P. F., 1995, “Flow-Mediated Endothelial Mechanotransduction,” Physiol. Rev., 75, pp. 519–560.
Liu,  S. Q., 1999, “Biomechanical Basis of Vascular Tissue Engineering,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 27, pp. 75–148.
Satcher,  R. L., Bussolari,  S. R., Gimbrone,  M. A., and Dewey,  C. F., 1992, “The Distribution of Fluid Forces on Model Arterial Endothelium Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,” J. Biomech. Eng., 114, pp. 309–316.
Barbee,  K. A., Davies,  P. F., and Lal,  R., 1994, “Shear Stress-Induced Reorganization of the Surface Topography of Living Endothelial Cells Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy,” Circ. Res., 74, pp. 163–171.
Barbee,  K. A., Mundel,  T., Lal,  R., and Davies,  P. F., 1995, “Subcellular Distribution of Shear Stress at the Surface of Flow-Aligned and Nonaligned Endothelial Monolayers,” Am. J. Physiol., 268, pp. H1765–1772.
Jacobs, P. F., 1993, Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing: Fundamentals of SteroLithography, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Merzkirch, W., 1987, Flow Visualization, Academic Press Inc., Orlando, pp. 38–66.
Budwig,  R., 1994, “Refractive Index Matching Methods for Liquid Flow Investigations,” Exp. Fluids, 17, pp. 350–355.
Adrian,  R. J., 1991, “Particle-Imaging Techniques for Experimental Fluid Mechanics,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 23, pp. 261–304.
Grant,  I., 1997, “Particle Image Velocimetry: A Review,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 211, pp. 55–76.
Kobayashi, T., and Saga, T., 1988, “A Real Time Velocity Measurement Algorithm for Two-Dimensional Flow Field,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, FLUCOME ’88, pp. 174–178.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Surface geometry of a cell model scaled-up by a factor of 100. This model (16×16 mm) has 25 bulges corresponding to cells. The tracers were tracked at various heights on the measurement plane, every 0.1 mm vertical from the base (Z=−0.11,−0.01,0.09,0.19,0.29,0.39,0.49,1 mm). Here, zs is the surface geometry function, η (0.21 mm) is the amplitude of the surface oscillation, λx (4 mm) is the streamwise wavelength, and λy (4 mm) is the transverse wavelength.
Grahic Jump Location
Velocity vectors in the measurement planes (4 subsections) near a center bulge. Highest point of the model surface is X=0,Y=0,Z=0.21 mm, and lowest point is X=0,Y=2,Z=−0.21 mm. Solid lines are the boundaries of the model surfaces at each section and the model surface is symmetrical along the X- and Y-axes (X=0,Y=0 mm).
Grahic Jump Location
Normalized wall shear stress distribution on the scaled-up model. τ*zx*2zy*2zx*zxmacrozy*zymacro, where τmacro is the macroscopic wall shear stress (1.5 Pa); (a) analytical, (b) experimental.
Grahic Jump Location
Wall shear stress distribution and height of the scaled-up model on the Y-axis (X=0 mm).

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