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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Experimental Optimization of Pivot Point Height for Swing-Arm Type Rear Suspensions in Off-Road Bicycles

[+] Author and Article Information
Ari Karchin

Biomedical Engineering Program, University of California, Davis, CA 95616  

M. L. Hull

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Program, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

J Biomech Eng 124(1), 101-106 (Aug 16, 2001) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1427701 History: Received February 15, 2001; Revised August 16, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Needle,  S., and Hull,  M. L., 1997, “An Off-Road Bicycle With Adjustable Suspension Kinematics,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 119, pp. 370–375.
1992, “Suspension Vs. Rigid,” Mountain Bike Action, 7, pp. 28–40.
Olsen, J., 1996, “Bicycle Suspension Systems,” in Hi-Tech Cycling, E. Burke, ed., Human Kinetics, Champaign.
Wang,  E. L., and Hull,  M. L., 1997, “Minimization of Pedaling Induced Energy Losses in Off-Road Bicycle Rear Suspension Systems,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 28, pp. 291–306.
Good,  C., and McPhee,  J., 1999, “Dynamics of Mountain Bicycles With Rear Suspensions: Modeling and Simulation,” Sports Engineering, 2, pp. 129–143.
Wang,  E. L., and Hull,  M. L., 1996, “A Model for Determining Rider Induced Energy Losses in Bicycle Suspension Systems,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 25, pp. 223–246.
Stone,  C., and Hull,  M. L., 1993, “Rider/Bicycle Interaction Loads During Standing Treadmill Cycling,” Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 9, pp. 208–218.
Tanaka,  H., Bassett,  D. R. J., Best,  S. K., and Baker,  K. R. J., 1996, “Seated Versus Standing Cycling in Competitive Road Cyclists: Uphill Climbing and Maximal Oxygen Uptake,” Can. J. Appl. Physiol., 21, pp. 149–154.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Diagram illustrating how the height of the pivot point affects the suspension motion induced by changes in the chain tension: (A) The suspension extends for a high pivot point, and (B) the suspension compresses for a low pivot point.
Grahic Jump Location
Example plot of the average power loss versus the pivot point height (standing posture). The plot illustrates how the optimal pivot point height and the limits for pivot point heights corresponding to a 10 percent increase in the minimum average power loss were determined.
Grahic Jump Location
Minimum rear suspension power loss for all subjects in the seated posture (front suspension active)
Grahic Jump Location
Minimum rear suspension power loss for all subjects in the standing posture (front suspension active)
Grahic Jump Location
Optimal pivot point height corresponding to minimum rear suspension power loss for all subjects in the seated posture (front suspension active)
Grahic Jump Location
Optimal pivot point height corresponding to minimum rear suspension power loss for all subjects in the standing posture (front suspension active)

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