0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

Effects of Static Stress on the Mechanical Properties of Cultured Collagen Fascicles From the Rabbit Patellar Tendon

[+] Author and Article Information
Ei Yamamoto

Laboratory on Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kinki University, Wakayama 649-6493, Japane-mail: ei@fmec.waka.kindai.ac.jp

Wataru Iwanaga

Kubota Corporation, Osaka 590-0823, Japan

Hiroshi Miyazaki, Kozaburo Hayashi

Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Mechanical Science, Department of Systems and Human Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531, Japan

J Biomech Eng 124(1), 85-93 (Aug 16, 2001) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1427924 History: Received April 18, 2000; Revised August 16, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Hayashi,  K., 1996, “Biomechanical Studies of the Remodeling of Knee Joint Tendons and Ligaments,” J. Biomech., 29, pp. 707–716.
Yasuda,  K., and Hayashi,  K., 1999, “Changes in Biomechanical Properties of Tendons and Ligaments From Joint Disuse,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 7, pp. 122–129.
Woo,  S. L.-Y., Ritter,  M. A., Amiel,  D., Sanders,  T. M., Gomez,  M. A., Kuei,  S. C., Garfin,  S. R., and Akeson,  W. H., 1980, “The Biomechanical and Biochemical Properties of Swine Tendons - Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Digital Extensors,” Connect. Tissue Res., 7, pp. 177–183.
Tipton,  C. M., Vailas,  A. C., and Matthes,  R. D., 1986, “Experimental Studies on the Influences of Physical Activity on Ligaments, Tendons, and Joint: A Brief Review,” Acta Med. Scand., Suppl., 711, pp. 157–168.
Noyes,  F. R., 1977, “Functional Properties of Knee Ligaments and Alterations Induced by Immobilization. A Correlative Biomechanical and Histological Study in Primates,” Clin. Orthop., 123, pp. 210–242.
Woo,  S. L.-Y, Gomez,  M. A., Sites,  T. J., Newton,  P. O., Orlando,  C. A., and Akeson,  W. H., 1987, “The Biomechanical and Morphological Changes in the Medial Collateral Ligament of the Rabbit After Immobilization and Remobilization,” J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am., 69A, pp. 1200–1211.
Loitz,  B. J., Zernicke,  R. F., Vailas,  A. C., Kody,  M. H., and Burstein,  A. H., 1989, “Effects of Short-Term Immobilization Versus Continuous Passive Motion in a Non-Weight-Bearing Model,” Clin. Orthop., 244, pp. 265–271.
Yamamoto,  N., Ohno,  K., Hayashi,  K., Kuriyama,  H., Yasuda,  K., and Kaneda,  K., 1993, “Effects of Stress Shielding on the Mechanical Properties of Rabbit Patellar Tendon,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 115, pp. 23–28.
Majima,  T., Yasuda,  K., Fujii,  T., Yamamoto,  N., Hayashi,  K., and Kaneda,  K., 1996, “Biomechanical Effects of Stress Shielding of the Rabbit Patellar Tendon Depend on the Degree of Stress Reduction,” J. Orthop. Res., 14, pp. 377–383.
Hayashi, K., Yamamoto, N., and Yasuda, K., 1996, “Response of Knee Joint Tendons and Ligaments to Mechanical Stress,” Biomechanics - Functional Adaptation and Remodeling, Hayashi, K., Kamiya, A., and Ono, K., eds., Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 185–212.
Yamamoto,  N., Hayashi,  K., Kuriyama,  H., Ohno,  K., Yasuda,  K., and Kaneda,  K., 1996, “Effects of Restressing on the Mechanical Properties of Stress-Shielded Patellar Tendons in Rabbits,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 118, pp. 216–220.
Yamamoto,  N., Hayashi,  K., Hayashi,  F., Yasuda,  K., and Kaneda,  K., 1999, “Biomechanical Studies of the Rabbit Patellar Tendon After Removal of Its One-Fourth or a Half,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 121, pp. 323–329.
Slack,  C., Flint,  M. H., and Thompson,  B. M., 1984, “The Effects of Tensional Load on Isolated Embryonic Chick Tendons in Organ Culture,” Connect. Tissue Res., 12, pp. 229–247.
Koob,  T. J., and Vogel,  K. G., 1987, “Proteoglycan Synthesis on Organ Cultures from Regions of Bovine Tendon Subjected to Different Mechanical Forces,” Biochem. J., 246, pp. 589–598.
Vogel,  K. G., 1996, “The Effects of Compressive Loading on Proteoglycan Turnover in Cultured Fetal Tendon,” Connect. Tissue Res., 34, pp. 227–237.
Hannafin,  J. A., Arnoczky,  S. P., Hoonjan,  A., and Torzilli,  P. A., 1995, “Effect of Stress Deprivation and Cyclic Tensile Loading on the Material and Morphologic Properties of Canine Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendons: An in Vitro Study,” J. Orthop. Res., 13, pp. 907–914.
Kastelic,  J., Galeski,  A., and Baer,  E., 1978, “The Multicomposite Structure of Tendon,” Connect. Tissue Res., 6,, pp. 11–23.
Derwin,  K. A., and Soslowsky,  L. J., 1999, “A Quantitative Investigation of Structure-Function Relationships in a Tendon Fascicle Model,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 121, pp. 598–604.
Yamamoto,  E., Hayashi,  K., and Yamamoto,  N., 1999, “Mechanical Properties of Collagen Fascicles From the Rabbit Patellar Tendon,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 121, pp. 124–131.
Freshney, R. I., 1994, Culture of Animal Cells—A Manual of Basic Technique, Third Edition, Wiley-Liss, New York, NY.
Yamamoto,  N., Hayashi,  K., Kuriyama,  H., Ohno,  K., Yasuda,  K., and Kaneda,  K., 1992, “Mechanical Properties of the Rabbit Patellar Tendon,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 114, pp. 332–337.
Yamamoto,  N., Hayashi,  K., and Hayashi,  F., 1992, “In Vivo Measurement of Tension in the Rabbit Patellar Tendon,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Ser. A 58, pp. 1142–1147.
Keira,  M., Yasuda,  K., Kaneda,  K., Yamamoto,  N., and Hayashi,  N., 1996, “Mechanical properties of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Chronically Relaxed by Elevation of the Tibial Insertion,” J. Orthop. Res., 14, 157–166.
Yamamoto,  E., Hayashi,  K., and Yamamoto,  N., 1999, “Mechanical Properties of Collagen Fascicles from Stress-Shielded Patellar Tendons in the Rabbit,” Clin. Biomech., 14, pp. 418–425.
Hannafin,  J. A., and Arnoczky,  S. P., 1994, “Effect of Cyclic and Static Tensile Loading on Water Content and Solute Diffusion in Canine Flexor Tendons: An in Vitro Study,” J. Orthop. Res., 12, pp. 350–356.
Mass,  P. D., Tuel,  R. J., Labarbera,  M., and Greenwald,  D. P., 1993, “Effects of Constant Mechanical Tension on the Healing of Rabbit Flexor Tendons,” Clin. Orthop., 296, pp. 301–306.
Tanaka,  H., Manske,  P. R., Pruitt,  D. L., and Larson,  B. J., 1995, “Effects of Cyclic Tension on Lacerated Flexor Tendons in Vitro,” J. Hand Surg., 20A, pp. 467–473.
McDonald,  F., and Ford,  T. R. P., 1993, “Blood Flow Changes in the Tibia During External Loading,” J. Orthop. Res., 11, pp. 36–48.
Carano,  A., and Siciliani,  G., 1996, “Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Forces on Human Fibroblasts In Vitro,” Eur. J. Ortho., 18, pp. 19–26.
Nabeshima,  Y., Grood,  E. S., Sakurai,  A., and Herman,  J. H., 1996, “Uniaxial Tension Inhibits Tendon Collagen Degradation by Collagenase in Vitro,” J. Orthop. Res., 14, pp. 123–130.
Dale,  W. C., Baer,  E., Keller,  A., and Kohn,  R. R., 1972, “On the Ultrastructure of Mammalian Tendon,” Experientia, 28, pp. 1293–1295.
Diamant,  J., Keller,  A., Baer,  E., Litt,  M., and Arridge,  R. G. C., 1972, “Collagen: Ultrastructure and Its Relation to Mechanical Properties as a Function of Aging,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 180, pp. 293–315.
Wilmink,  J., Wilson,  A. M., and Goodship,  A. E., 1992, “Functional Significance of the Morphology and Micromechanics of Collagen Fibres in Relation to Partial Rupture of the Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon in Racehorses,” Res. Vet. Sci., 53, pp. 354–359.
Patterson-Kane,  J. C., Parry,  D. A., Birch,  H. L., Goodship,  A. E., and Firth,  E. C., 1997, “An Age-Related Study of Morphology and Cross-Link Composition of Collagen Fibrils in the Digital Flexor Tendons of Young Thoroughbred Horses,” Connect. Tissue Res., 36, pp. 253–260.
Haut,  R. C., 1985, “The Effects of a Lathyritic Diet on the Sensitivity of Tendon to Strain Rate,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 107, 166–174.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Resection of collagen fascicles from a rabbit patellar tendon under sterile condition. Collagen fascicles having the diameter and length of approximately 300 μm and 15 mm, respectively, were carefully dissected from the patellar tendon with a surgical knife, while the tendon was immersed in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS).
Grahic Jump Location
Apparatus for the culture of collagen fascicles under static load condition. Each fascicle was immersed in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10 percent fetal calf serum (FCS), 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. A stainless steel weight was suspended using a suture to apply static load to the fascicle. Four fascicles can be set up in the apparatus.
Grahic Jump Location
Definition of crimp angle, crimp length, and wave length. Crimp length was defined as the distance between the top and bottom points of a fibril. Crimp angle was defined as the angle between the line connecting the top and bottom points and the line connecting neighboring two middle points. Wave length was calculated from the crimp angle and crimp length.
Grahic Jump Location
Typical stress-strain curves of the fascicles cultured under different stresses for 1 (a) and 2 wk (b), and averaged curves of control and non-loaded fascicles. These stress-strain curves were almost linear between 2 and 5 percent strain, with toe regions under 2 percent strain.
Grahic Jump Location
Applied stress versus tangent modulus of cultured collagen fascicles. There were statistically significant correlations between them in 1-wk, 2-wk, and pooled data; each relation was described by a quadratic curve. The quadratic function for the pooled data had the maximum modulus of 175 MPa at the applied stress of 1.3 MPa. Each point represents the average of the data from one to four fascicles.
Grahic Jump Location
Applied stress versus tensile strength of cultured collagen fascicles. There were statistically significant correlations between them in 1-wk, 2-wk, and pooled data; each relation was described by a quadratic curve. The quadratic function for the pooled data had the maximum strength of 16.7 MPa at the applied stress of 1.2 MPa. Each point represents the average of the data from one to four fascicles.
Grahic Jump Location
Applied stress versus strain at failure of cultured collagen fascicles. Strain at failure was negatively correlated with applied stress, and the relations were statistically significant. Each point represents the average of the data from one to four fascicles.
Grahic Jump Location
Examples of the photomicrographs of crimp morphology in a control fascicle (A) and the fascicles cultured under no load (B), 0.44 MPa (C), 1.27 MPa (D), and 2.55 MPa (E) for 2 wk. Bars indicate 50 μm.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In