Microdamage Accumulation in Bovine Trabecular Bone in Uniaxial Compression

[+] Author and Article Information
T. L. Arthur Moore

Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215e-mail: tarthur@mit.edu

L. J. Gibson

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139e-mail: ljgibson@mit.edu

J Biomech Eng 124(1), 63-71 (Oct 02, 2001) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1428745 History: Received August 29, 2000; Revised October 02, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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Stress-strain curves for bovine trabecular bone in compression. (a) Specimen unloaded to zero strain. The initial Young s modulus, E0, the secant modulus, Esec, the reloading modulus, Ereloading, and the unloading modulus, Eunloading, are indicated along with the maximum strain, εmax, the residual strain, εresidual, and the residual tension. (b) Specimen unloaded to zero stress.
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Schematic of types of microdamage in trabecular bone. (a) single crack (b) parallel cracks (c) cross-hatched cracks (equal cross-hatching) (d) complete fracture (e) damaged band across section (average of five measurements).
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Observed types of microdamage in trabecular bone (a) single crack, (b) parallel cracks, (c) cross-hatch: equal cross-hatching, (d) cross-hatch: unequal cross-hatching, one primary crack with minor secondary cracks, (e) cross-hatch: diffuse damage, (f ) complete fracture
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Breakdown of number of damaged trabeculae, normalized by section area, by damage pattern for each strain level. The −2.5 percent strain level is not plotted because only two specimens were tested to that level.
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Breakdown of number of damaged trabeculae, normalized by section area, by extent of damage through the trabecular thickness for each strain level. The −2.5 percent strain level is not plotted because only two specimens were tested to that level.
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(a) Crack length frequency distribution for a single specimen (tested to ε=−4.0 percent). (b) Average crack number frequency distribution for each strain level (n=5 for each strain level). Distributions for strain levels below −1.1 percent are very small, with values less than those for ε=−1.1 percent. They are not plotted to improve readability.
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(a) Crack number normalized by section area plotted against damage (1−Esec/E0). (b) Total crack length normalized by section area plotted against damage (1−Esec/E0).
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Images of section gauge lengths, with location of damaged trabeculae marked. Images are typical for the strain level. (a) Untested specimen, little damage present. (b) Specimen tested to −0.4 percent, damage not significantly different from untested specimen. (c) Specimen tested to −0.8 percent, some damage seen. Damage is not localized. (d) Specimen tested to −1.1 percent, damage occurs in a localized region, but does not extend across the specimen. (e) Specimen tested to −1.3 percent, localized region of damage extends across the specimen, forming a damage band. (f ) Specimen tested to −2.0 percent, damage band has increased in length. Specimen tested to −4.0 percent, damage band is not significantly longer than in (f ), but damage density within the damage band has increased.



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