Microdamage Accumulation in Bovine Trabecular Bone in Uniaxial Compression

[+] Author and Article Information
T. L. Arthur Moore

Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215e-mail: tarthur@mit.edu

L. J. Gibson

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139e-mail: ljgibson@mit.edu

J Biomech Eng 124(1), 63-71 (Oct 02, 2001) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1428745 History: Received August 29, 2000; Revised October 02, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Fazzalari,  N. L., Forwood,  M. R., Manthey,  B. A., Smith,  K., and Kolesik,  P., 1998, “Three-Dimensional Confocal Images of Microdamage in Cancellous Bone,” Bone, 23, pp. 373–378.
Burr,  D. B., Forwood,  M. R., Fyhrie,  D. P., Martin,  R. B., Schaffler,  M. B., and Turner,  C. H., 1997, “Bone Microdamage and Skeletal Fragility in Osteoporotic and Stress Fractures,” Bone, 12, pp. 6–15.
Frost,  H. M., 1960, “Presence of Microscopic Cracks In Vivo in Bone,” Bulletin of the Henry Ford Hospital, Bone, 8, pp. 23–35.
Mori,  S., Harruff,  R., Ambrosius,  W., and Burr,  D. B., 1997, “Trabecular Bone Volume and Microdamage Accumulation in the Femoral Heads of Women With and Without Femoral Neck Fractures,” Bone, 21, pp. 521–526.
Muir,  P., Johnson,  K. A., and Ruaux-Mason,  C. P., 1999, “In Vivo Matrix Microdamage in a Naturally Occurring Canine Fatigue Fracture,” Bone, 25, pp. 571–576.
Wenzel,  T. E., Schaffler,  M. B., and Fyhrie,  D. P., 1996, “In Vivo Trabecular Microcracks in Human Vertebral Bone,” Bone, 19, pp. 89–95.
Vashishth,  D., Koontz,  J., Qiu,  S. J., Lundin-Cannon,  D., Yeni,  Y. N., and Schaffler,  M. B., 2000, “In Vivo Diffuse Damage in Human Vertebral Trabecular Bone,” Bone, 26, pp. 147–152.
Schaffler,  M. B., Choi,  K., and Milgrom,  C., 1995, “Aging and Matrix Microdamage Accumulation in Human Compact Bone,” Bone, 17, pp. 521–525.
Forwood,  M. R., and Parker,  A. W., 1989, “Microdamage in Response to Repetitive Torsional Loading in the Rat Tibia,” Calcif. Tissue Int., 45, pp. 47–53.
Martin,  R. B., Stover,  S. M., Gibson,  V. A., Gibeling,  J. C., and Griffin,  L. V., 1996, “In Vitro Fatigue Behavior of the Equine Third Metacarpus: Remodeling and Microcrack Damage Analysis,” J. Orthop. Res. 14, pp. 794–801.
Schaffler,  M. B., Radin,  E. L., and Burr,  D. B., 1989, “Mechanical and Morphological Effects of Strain Rate on Fatigue of Compact Bone,” Bone, 10, pp. 207–214.
Fyhrie,  D. P., and Schaffler,  M. B., 1994, “Failure Mechanisms in Human Vertebral Cancellous Bone,” Bone, 15, pp. 105–109.
Zioupos,  P., Currey,  J. D., and Sedman,  A. J., 1994, “An Examination of the Micromechanics of Failure of Bone and Antler by Acoustic Emission Tests and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy,” Med. Eng. Phys., 16, pp. 203–212.
Zioupos,  P., and Currey,  J. D., 1994, “The Extent of Microcracks and the Morphology of Microcracks in Damaged Bone,” J. Mater. Sci., 29, pp. 978–986.
Wachtel,  E. F., and Keaveny,  T. M., 1997, “Dependence of Trabecular Damage on Mechanical Strain,” J. Orthop. Res., 15, pp. 781–787.
Reilly,  G. C., and Currey,  J. D., 1999, “The Development of Microcracking and Failure in Bone Depends on the Loading Mode to Which It Is Adapted,” J. Exp. Biol., 202, pp. 543–552.
Hoshaw,  S. J., Cody,  D. D., Saad,  A. M., and Fyhrie,  D. P., 1997, “Decrease in Canine Proximal Femoral Ultimate Strength and Stiffness due to Fatigue Damage,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 323–329.
Keaveny,  T. M., Wachtel,  E. F., and Kopperdahl,  D. L., 1999, “Mechanical Behavior of Human Trabecular Bone After Overloading,” J. Biomech., 17, pp. 346–353.
Keaveny,  T. M., Wachtel,  E. F., Guo,  X. E., and Hayes,  W. C., 1994, “Mechanical Behavior of Damaged Trabecular Bone,” J. Biomech., 27, pp. 1309–1318.
Burr,  D. B., Turner,  C. H., Naick,  P., Forwood,  M. R., Ambrosius,  W., Hasan,  M. S., and Pidaparti,  R., 1998, “Does Microdamage Accumulation Affect the Mechanical Properties of Bone?” J. Biomech., 31, pp. 337–345.
Zioupos,  P., Currey,  J. D., Mirza,  M. S., and Barton,  D. C., 1995, “Experimentally Determined Microcracking Around a Circular Hole in a Flat Plate of Bone: Comparison With Predicted Stresses,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, 347, pp. 383–396.
Yeh,  O. C., and Keaveny,  T. M., 2000, “Roles of Microdamage and Microfracture in the Mechanical Behavior of Trabecular Bone,” Transactions of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 25, pp. 34.
Burr,  D. B., and Stafford,  T., 1990, “Validity of the Bulk-Staining Technique to Separate Artifactual from In Vivo Bone Microdamage,” Clin. Orthop., Relat. Res. 260, pp. 305–308.
Burr,  D. B., and Hooser,  M., 1995, “Alterations to the En Bloc Basic Fuchsin Staining Protocol for the Demonstration of Microdamage Produced In Vivo,” Bone, 17, pp. 431–433.
Lee, T. C., 1997, “Detection and Accumulation of Microdamage in Bone,” M.D. Thesis, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
Lee,  T. C., Arthur,  T. L., Gibson,  L. J., and Hayes,  W. C., 2000, “Sequential Labelling of Microdamage in Bone Using Chelating Agents,” J. Orthop. Res., 18, pp. 322–325.
Lee, T. C., Arthur, T. L., Hayes, W. C., and Gibson, L. J., 1997, “Detection of Fatigue Crack Growth in Bone,” Proceedings of the 1997 Bioengineering Conference, ASME, pp. 309–310.
Moore, T. L. A., and Gibson, L. J., 2000, “Modeling Modulus Reduction in Bovine Trabecular Bone Tested in Compression,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., in press.
Keaveny,  T. M., Guo,  X. E., Wachtel,  E. F., McMahon,  T. A., and Hayes,  W. C., 1994, “Trabecular Bone Exhibits Fully Linear Elastic Behavior and Yields at Low Strains,” J. Biomech., 27, pp. 1127–1136.
Andrews,  E. W., Gioux,  G., Onck,  P., and Gibson,  L. J., 2001, “Size Effects in Ductile Cellular Solids. Part II: Experimental Results,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 43, pp. 701–713.
Onck,  P. R., Andrews,  E. W., and Gibson,  L. J., 2001, “Size Effects in Ductile Cellular Solids. Part I: Modeling,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 43, pp. 681–699.
Jepson,  K. J., Davy,  D. T., and Krzypow,  D. J., 1999, “The Role of the Lamellar Interface During Torsional Yielding of Human Cortical Bone,” J. Biomech., 32, pp. 303–310.
Wilson,  J. F., Jepsen,  K. J., Bensusan,  J. S., and Davy,  D. T., 2000, “Simple Mechanical Measures as Predictors of Tensile Failure in Human Cortical Bone,” Transactions of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 25, pp. 963.
Keaveny,  T. M., Wachtel,  E. F., Ford,  C. M., and Hayes,  W. C., 1994, “Differences Between the Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Bovine Tibial Trabecular Bone Depend on Modulus,” J. Biomech., 27, pp. 1137–1146.
O’Brien, F. J., 2001, “Microcracks and the Fatigue Behavior of Compact Bone,” Ph.D. Thesis, Trinity College and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
Carter,  D. R., and Hayes,  W. C., 1977, “The Compressive Behavior of Bone as a Two-Phase Porous Structure,” J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am. Vol. 59, pp. 954–962.
Pugh,  J. W., Rose,  R. M., and Radin,  E. L., 1973, “Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Trabecular Bone: Dependence on Structure,” J. Biomech., 6, pp. 475–485.
Fazzalari,  N. L., Forwood,  M. R., Smith,  K., Manthey,  B. A., and Herreen,  P., 1998, “Assessment of Cancellous Bone Quality in Severe Osteoarthrosis: Bone Mineral Density, Mechanics, and Microdamage,” Bone, 22, pp. 381–388.
Taylor,  D., and Lee,  T. C., 1998, “Measuring the Shape and Size of Microcracks in Bone,” J. Biomech., 31, pp. 1177–1180.
DeHoff, R. T., and Rhines, 1968, Quantitative Microscopy, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Boyce,  T. M., Fyhrie,  D. P., Glotkowski,  M. C., Radin,  E. L., and Schaffler,  M. B., 1998, “Damage Type and Strain Mode Associations in Human Compact Bone Bending Fatigue,” Bone, 16, pp. 322–329.
Bowman,  S. M., Keaveny,  T. M., Gibson,  L. J., Hayes,  W. C., and McMahon,  T. A., 1994, “Compressive Creep Behavior of Bovine Trabecular Bone,” J. Biomech., 27, pp. 301–310.
Ford,  C. M., and Keaveny,  T. M., 1996, “The Dependence of Shear Failure Properties of Trabecular Bone on Apparent Density and Trabecular Orientation,” J. Biomech., 29, pp. 1309–1317.
Oden,  Z. M., Sevitelli,  D. M., Hayes,  W. C., and Myers,  E. R., 1998, “The Effect of Trabecular Structure on DXA-based Predictions of Bovine Bone Failure,” Calcif. Tissue Int., 63, pp. 67–73.
van Rietbergen,  B., Weinans,  H., Huiskes,  R., and Odgaard,  A., 1995, “A New Method to Determine Trabecular Bone Elastic Properties and Loading Using Micromechanical Finite-Element Models,” J. Biomech., 28, pp. 69–81.
Keaveny,  T. M., Borchers,  R. E., Gibson,  L. J., and Hayes,  W. C., 1993, “Trabecular Bone Modulus and Strength Can Depend on Specimen Geometry,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 991–1000.
Morgan,  E. F., Yeh,  O. C., Chang,  W. C., and Keaveny,  T. M., 2000, “Non-linear Behavior of Trabecular Bone at Small Strains,” Transactions of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 25, pp. 31.
Rho,  J. Y., Tsui,  T. Y., and Pharr,  G. M., 1997, “Elastic Properties of Human Cortical and Trabecular Lamellar Bone Measured by Nanoindentation,” Biomaterials, 18, pp. 1325–1330.
Zysset,  P. K., Guo,  X. E., Hoffler,  C. E., Moore,  K. E., and Goldstein,  S. A., 1998, “Mechanical Properties of Human Trabecular Bone Lamellae Quantified by Nanoindentation,” Tech. Health Care, 6, pp. 429–432.


Grahic Jump Location
Stress-strain curves for bovine trabecular bone in compression. (a) Specimen unloaded to zero strain. The initial Young s modulus, E0, the secant modulus, Esec, the reloading modulus, Ereloading, and the unloading modulus, Eunloading, are indicated along with the maximum strain, εmax, the residual strain, εresidual, and the residual tension. (b) Specimen unloaded to zero stress.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of types of microdamage in trabecular bone. (a) single crack (b) parallel cracks (c) cross-hatched cracks (equal cross-hatching) (d) complete fracture (e) damaged band across section (average of five measurements).
Grahic Jump Location
Observed types of microdamage in trabecular bone (a) single crack, (b) parallel cracks, (c) cross-hatch: equal cross-hatching, (d) cross-hatch: unequal cross-hatching, one primary crack with minor secondary cracks, (e) cross-hatch: diffuse damage, (f ) complete fracture
Grahic Jump Location
Breakdown of number of damaged trabeculae, normalized by section area, by damage pattern for each strain level. The −2.5 percent strain level is not plotted because only two specimens were tested to that level.
Grahic Jump Location
Breakdown of number of damaged trabeculae, normalized by section area, by extent of damage through the trabecular thickness for each strain level. The −2.5 percent strain level is not plotted because only two specimens were tested to that level.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Crack length frequency distribution for a single specimen (tested to ε=−4.0 percent). (b) Average crack number frequency distribution for each strain level (n=5 for each strain level). Distributions for strain levels below −1.1 percent are very small, with values less than those for ε=−1.1 percent. They are not plotted to improve readability.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Crack number normalized by section area plotted against damage (1−Esec/E0). (b) Total crack length normalized by section area plotted against damage (1−Esec/E0).
Grahic Jump Location
Images of section gauge lengths, with location of damaged trabeculae marked. Images are typical for the strain level. (a) Untested specimen, little damage present. (b) Specimen tested to −0.4 percent, damage not significantly different from untested specimen. (c) Specimen tested to −0.8 percent, some damage seen. Damage is not localized. (d) Specimen tested to −1.1 percent, damage occurs in a localized region, but does not extend across the specimen. (e) Specimen tested to −1.3 percent, localized region of damage extends across the specimen, forming a damage band. (f ) Specimen tested to −2.0 percent, damage band has increased in length. Specimen tested to −4.0 percent, damage band is not significantly longer than in (f ), but damage density within the damage band has increased.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In