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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Control of the Shape of a Thrombus-Neointima-Like Structure by Blood Shear Stress

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Q. Liu, L. Zhong, J. Goldman

Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3107

J Biomech Eng 124(1), 30-36 (Sep 17, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1428744 History: Received February 22, 2000; Revised September 17, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
A diagram showing a micro-cylinder implanted in the rat vena cava. The locations at θ=0 deg and 180 deg indicate the leading and trailing stagnation points.
Grahic Jump Location
Photographs showing flow patterns and locations of flow separation on a micro-cylinder at three axial locations with Reynolds numbers approximately 10, 14, and 18 (panels A, B, and C, respectively). The micro-cylinder was placed in the center of a glass tube (diameter similar to that of the vena cava) with the micro-cylinder perpendicular to flow. Scale: 350 μm.
Grahic Jump Location
Influence of blood flow on the formation of the thrombus-neointima-like tissue on an implanted micro-cylinder at day 10 after surgery. A. An example of the thrombus-neointima-like tissue. The points at −50% and 50% indicate the two intersections of the micro-cylinder with the vena cava wall, and 0% is the mid-point of the micro-cylinder. The numbers 18, 14 and 10 are Reynolds numbers at corresponding locations. Blood flow direction: top to bottom. Scale: 350 μm. B. Velocity distribution in the vena cava, calculated using equation 1. C. Thickness of the thrombus-neointima-like tissue along the micro-cylinder axis at the circumferential leading (θ=0 deg, circles) and trailing (θ=180 deg, squares) stagnation locations (see Fig. 1 for these locations). The positive and negative signs on the vertical axis indicate opposite directions of growth of the thrombus-neointima-like tissue with respect to the micro-cylinder. The horizontal axis is identical for all 3 panels.
Grahic Jump Location
Micrographs showing the cross-section of the thrombus-neointima-like tissue on the implanted micro-cylinder collected at an axial location with Reynolds number ∼14 at day 1, 5, 10 and 30 (panels A, B, C, and D, respectively). The structure and shape of 20-day specimens were similar to those from day 10 and 30. Arrow: blood flow direction. Scale: 100 μm.
Grahic Jump Location
Influence of blood shear stress on the thickness of the thrombus-neointima-like tissue on the implanted micro-cylinder. A. Distribution of blood shear stress on the micro-cylinder from 0 deg to 109 deg at three axial locations: the mid-point of the micro-cylinder (Reynolds number ∼18, triangles), 15% of the micro-cylinder length from the mid-point (Reynolds number ∼14, squares), and 30% of the micro-cylinder length from the mid-point (Reynolds number ∼10, circles). See Fig. 3A for these locations. Data were from 10-day specimens (n=5).B. Thickness of the thrombus-neointima-like tissue on the micro-cylinder from 0 deg to 109 deg at the three axial locations described in panel A at day 10 after surgery. C. Changes in the thickness of the thrombus-neointima-like tissue measured at 3 circumferential locations 0 deg (circles), 56 deg (squares), and 180 deg (triangles, see Fig. 1 for these circumferential locations) at an axial location with Reynolds number ∼14 (see Fig. 3A for the axial location) from day 1 to 30 after surgery.
Grahic Jump Location
A Distribution of SMC α actin in the thrombus-neointima-like tissue on the micro-cylinder from 0 deg to 109 deg (see Fig. 1 for these angles) at three axial locations with Reynolds numbers ∼10, 14, and 18 (circles, squares, and triangles, respectively; see Fig. 3A for these axial locations) at day 10 after surgery. B. Changes in the percentage of SMC α actin in the thrombus-neointima-like tissue measured at 3 circumferential locations 0 deg (circles), 56 deg (squares), and 180 deg (triangles, see Fig. 1 for these circumferential locations) at an axial location with Reynolds number ∼14 (see Fig. 3A for the axial location) from day 1 to 30 after surgery.
Grahic Jump Location
Influence of blood shear stress on the percentage of BrdU-positive cells in the thrombus-neointima-like tissue on the implanted micro-cylinder. A and B. Fluorescent micrographs showing BrdU-labeled cells and Hoechst 33258-labeled cell nuclei, respectively, in a thrombus-neointima-like tissue at day 10 after surgery. Arrow: direction of blood flow. Scale: 100 μm. C. Distribution of BrdU-positive cells in the thrombus-neointima-like tissue on the micro-cylinder from 0 deg to 109 deg (see Fig. 1 for these locations) at three axial locations with Reynolds numbers 10 (circles), 14 (squares), and 18 (triangles, see Fig. 3A for these axial locations). Data were from 10-day specimens (n=5).D. Changes in the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells in the thrombus-neointima-like tissue measured at 3 circumferential locations 0 deg (circles), 56 deg (squares), and 180 deg (triangles, see Fig. 1 for circumferential locations) at a selected axial location with Reynolds number ∼14 (see Fig. 3A for the axial location) from day 1 to 30 after surgery.

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