Numerical Analysis of Flow Through a Severely Stenotic Carotid Artery Bifurcation

[+] Author and Article Information
J. S. Stroud, S. A. Berger

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720

D. Saloner

Department of Radiology, VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA

J Biomech Eng 124(1), 9-20 (Sep 17, 2001) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1427042 History: Received October 28, 1999; Revised September 17, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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MR image of one coronal slice of carotid plaque specimen (a) and resulting three-dimensional dataset (b), obtained from all 60 coronal slices
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Waveform used for pulsatile flow calculations
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Examples of unstructured (left) and structured (right) grids used in computations
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Streamlines for Reynolds number (a) 300, (b) 600, (c) 900. Flow is upward.
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Pressure contours for Reynolds number (a) 300, (b) 600, (c) 900. Flow is upward. Pressure, Pa, is total pressure (static plus dynamic 1/2ρν2 term).
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Shear stress distribution for Reynolds number 300, 600, and 900. Shear stresses along the stenosis throat in the internal carotid are shown.
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At systole (t=0.1 s), (a) instantaneous streamlines and (b) pressure contours. Pressure is in Pa
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Wall shear stress distribution at systole
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At diastole (t=0.520 s), (a) instantaneous streamlines and (b) pressure contours. Pressure is in Pa.
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Wall shear stress distribution at diastole
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Laminar solution for axisymmetric 50% stenosis. Steady inlet flow (Re=3000) allowed to evolve. Results are shown at equal intervals of 0.006 seconds. Note onset of vortex shedding at t=0.042 seconds.
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Velocity profile 3 diameters downstream of stenosis throat in a 50% occluded vessel, Re=2000; comparison of numerical results with experimental data of Ahmed and Giddens 20
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Results of turbulent computation in the stenotic carotid bifurcation model: (a) instantaneous streamlines; (b) vorticity contours. Chien turbulence model was used. Flow is pulsatile, using waveform of Fig. 2, and upward.
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Wall shear stress distribution at systole along outer internal carotid wall for laminar and turbulent (Chien model) simulations. Distance 0 marks the beginning of stenosis throat in the geometry of Fig. 3.
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Ratio of turbulent eddy to laminar viscosity over one cycle of pulsatile flow. Turbulence model used is the Chien k-ε model, with 0.5 percent turbulence intensity.
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Streamlines in 50 percent stenotic axisymmetric vessel for Newtonian (top) and non-Newtonian power-law (bottom) fluid, after steady inlet flow with Re=600 has evolved for 1 second
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Instantaneous streamlines obtained during deceleration phase of pulsatile flow, non-Newtonian behavior modeled by power-law



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