0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

Design and Validation of an Unconstrained Loading System to Measure the Envelope of Motion in the Rabbit Knee Joint

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew D. Milne

Department of Medical Biophysics, Bioengineering Research Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6

J. Robert Giffin

Department of Surgery, Bioengineering Research Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6

David G. Chess, James A. Johnson, Graham J. W. King

Department of Surgery; Department of Medical Biophysics; Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Bioengineering Research Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6

J Biomech Eng 123(4), 347-354 (Mar 13, 2001) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1384877 History: Received December 13, 1998; Revised March 13, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Topics: Motion , Stress , Testing , Knee , Design , Errors
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Radin,  E. L., Martin,  R. B., Caterson,  B., Boyd,  R. D., and Goodwin,  C., 1984, “Effects of Mechanical Loading on the Tissues of the Rabbit Knee,” J. Orthop. Res., 2, pp. 221–234.
Reimann,  I., 1973, “Experimental Osteoarthritis of the Knee in Rabbits Induced by Alteration of the Load-Bearing,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 44, pp. 496–504.
Bray,  R. C., G.,  N., Frank,  C. B., and Chimich,  D. D., 1992, “The Early Effects of Joint Immobilization on Medial Collateral Ligament Healing in an ACL-Deficient Knee: A Gross Anatomic and Biomechanical Investigation in the Adult Rabbit Model,” J. Orthop. Res., 7, p. 474–485.
Ballock,  R. T., Woo,  S. L.-Y., Lyon,  R. M., Hollis,  J. M., and Akeson,  W. H., 1989, “Use of Patellar Tendon Autograft for Anterior Cruciate Reconstruction in the Rabbit: A Long Term Histologic and Biomechanical Study,” J. Orthop. Res., 7, pp. 474–485.
Frank,  C., Woo,  S. L.-Y., Amiel,  D., Harwood,  F., Gomez,  M., and Akeson,  W., 1983, “Medial Collateral Ligament Healing. A Multidisciplinary Assessment in Rabbits,” Am. J. Sports Med., 11, pp. 379–389.
King,  G. J. W., Edwards,  P., Brant,  R., Shrive,  N., and Frank,  C., 1995, “Intra-Operative Graft Tensioning Alters Viscoelastic but Not Failure Behaviors of Rabbit Medial Collateral Ligament Autografts,” J. Orthop. Res., 13, pp. 915–922.
Matsuura,  T., Goldberg,  V., Mansour,  J. M., and Bensusan,  J., 1991, “The Role of Stabilizers in the Anterior–Posterior Motion and Internal–External Rotation of the Rabbit Knee,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 177–180.
Torzilli,  P. A., and Arnoczky,  S. P., 1988, “Mechanical Properties of the Lateral Collateral Ligament: Effect of Cruciate Instability in the Rabbit,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 110, pp. 208–212.
Weiss,  J. A., Woo,  S. L.-Y., Ohland,  K. J., Horibe,  S., and Newton,  P. O., 1991, “Evaluation of a New Injury Model to Study Medial Collateral Ligament Healing: Primary Repair Versus Non-operative Treatment,” J. Orthop. Res., 9, pp. 516–528.
Bohr,  H., 1976, “Experimental Osteoarthritis in the Rabbit Knee Joint,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 47, pp. 558–565.
Hulth,  A., Lindberg,  L., and Telhag,  H., 1970, “Experimental Osteoarthritis in Rabbits,” Acta Orthop. Scand., 41, pp. 522–530.
Ogata,  K., Whiteside,  L. A., Lesker,  P. A., and Simmons,  D. J., 1977, “The Effect of Varus Stress on the Moving Rabbit Knee Joint,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 129, pp. 314–318.
Blankevoort,  L., van Osch,  G. J. V. M., Hekman,  E., and Janssen,  B., 1996, “In-Vitro Laxity-Testers for Knee Joints of Mice,” J. Biomech., 29, pp. 799–806.
Grood,  E. S., Stowers,  S. F., and Noyes,  F. R., 1988, “Limits of Movement in the Human Knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 70-A, pp. 88–97.
Lane,  J. G., Irby,  S. E., Kaufman,  K., Rangger,  C., and Daniel,  D. M., 1994, “The Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Controlling Axial Rotation: An Evaluation of Its Effect,” Am. J. Sports Med., 22, pp. 289–293.
Maitland,  E. M., Leonard,  T., Frank,  C. B., Shrive,  N. G., and Herzog,  W., 1998, “Method to Assess In Vivo Knee Stability Longitudinally in an Animal Model of Ligament Injury,” J. Orthop. Res., 16, 441–447.
Mills,  O. S., and Hull,  M. L., 1991, “Rotational Flexibility of the Human Knee Due to Varus/Valgus and Axial Moments In Vivo,”J. Biomech., 24, pp. 673–690.
Oster,  D. M., Grood,  E. S., Feder,  S. M., Butler,  D. L., and Levy,  M. S., 1992, “Primary and Coupled Motions in the Intact and the ACL-Deficient Knee: An In Vitro Study in the Goat Model,” J. Orthop. Res., 10, pp. 476–484.
Blankevoort,  L., Huiskes,  R., and de Lange,  A., 1988, “The Envelope of Passive Knee Joint Motion,” J. Biomech., 21, pp. 705–720.
Butler,  D. L., Noyes,  F. R., and Grood,  E. S., 1980, “Ligamentous Restraints to Anterior–Posterior Drawer in the Human Knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 62A, pp. 259–2709.
Grood,  E. S., Noyes,  F. R., Butler,  D. L., Suntay,  W. J., 1981, “Ligamentous and Capsular Restraints Preventing Straight Medial and Lateral Laxity in Intact Human Cadaver Knees,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 63-A, pp. 1257–1269.
Fukubayashi,  T., Torzilli,  P. A., Sherman,  M. F., and Warren,  R. F., 1982, “An In-Vitro Biomechanical Evaluation of Anterior Posterior Motion of the Knee,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 64-A, pp. 258–64.
Lipke,  J. L., Janecki,  C. J., Nelson,  C. L., McLeod,  P., Thompson,  J., and Haynes,  D. W., 1981, “The Role of Incompetence of the Anterior Cruciate and Lateral Ligaments in Anterolateral and Anteromedial Instability,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 63-A, pp. 954–960.
Markolf,  K. L., Bargar,  W. L., Shoemaker,  S. C., and Amstutz,  H. C., 1981, “The Role of Joint Load in Knee Stability,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 63-A, pp. 570–585.
Bach,  J. M., and Hull,  M. L., 1995, “A New Load Application System for In Vitro Study of Ligamentous Injuries to the Human Knee Joint,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 117, 373–381.
Berns,  G. S., Hull,  M. L., and Patterson,  H. A., 1990, “Implementation of a Five Degree of Freedom Automated System to Determine Knee Flexibility In Vitro,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 112, pp. 392–400.
Mills,  O. S., and Hull,  M. L., 1991, “Apparatus to Obtain Rotational Flexibility of the Human Knee Under Moment Loads In Vivo,”J. Biomech., 24, pp. 351–369.
Lewis,  J. L., Lew,  W. D., and Schmidt,  J., 1988, “Description and Error Evaluation of an In Vitro Knee Joint Testing System,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 110, pp. 238–248.
Inoue,  M., McGurk-Burleson,  E., Hollis,  J. M., and Woo,  S. L.-Y., 1987, “Treatment of the Medial Collateral Ligament Injury. I: The Importance of Anterior Cruciate Ligament on the Varus-Valgus Knee Laxity,” Am. J. Sports Med., 15, pp 15–21.
Hollis,  J. M., Takai,  S., Adams,  D. J., Horibe,  S., and Woo,  S. L.-Y., 1991, “The Effects of Knee Motion and External Loading on the Length of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL): A Kinematic Study,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 113, pp. 208–214.
Milne,  A. D., Chess,  D. G., Johnson,  J. A., and King,  G. J. W., 1996, “Accuracy of an Electromagnetic Tracking Device: A Study of the Optimal Operating Range and Metal Interference,” J. Biomech., 29, pp. 791–793.
Hollister,  A. M., Jatana,  S., Singh,  A. K., Sullivan,  W. W., and Lupichuk,  A. G., 1993, “The Axes of Rotation of the Knee,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 129, pp. 259–268.
Korvick,  D. L., Pijanowski,  G. I., and Schaeffer,  D. J., 1994, “Three-Dimensional Kinematics of the Intact and Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficient Stifle of Dogs,” J. Biomech., 27, pp. 77–84.
Nahass,  B. E., Madson,  M. M., and Walker,  P. S., 1991, “Motion of the Knee After Condylar Resurfacing—An In-Vivo Study,” J. Biomech., 24, pp. 1107–1117.
Grigg,  P., and Hoffman,  A. H., 1993, “Loading and Deformation of the Cat Posterior Knee Joint Capsule in Axial and Extension Rotations,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 1283–1290.
Chao,  E. Y. S., 1980, “Justification of Triaxial Goniometer for the Measurement of Joint Rotation,” J. Biomech., 13, pp. 989–1006.
Kurosawa,  H., Walker,  P. S., Abe,  S., Garg,  A., and Hunter,  T., 1985, “Geometry and Motion of the Knee for Implant and Orthotic Design,” J. Biomech., 18, pp. 487–499.
Suntay,  W. J., Grood,  E. S., Hefzy,  M. S., Butler,  D. L., and Noyes,  F. R., 1983, “Error Analysis of a System for Measuring Three-Dimensional Joint Motion,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 105, pp. 127–135.
Fuller,  J., Liu,  L.-J., Murphy,  M. C., and Mann,  R. W., 1997, “A Comparison of Lower-Extremity Skeletal Kinematics Measured Using Skin- and Pin-Mounted Markers,” Human. Motion Sci., 16, pp. 219–242.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
(A) The rabbit knee testing system. The device consisting of a femoral mounting bracket, an adjustable loading gantry to center the flexion–extension (F-E) axis of the knee, a cable and deadweight loading system (W), a load cell (LC), and load ring (LR) attached to the tibia. Joint kinematics were measured using the receiver (R) and transmitter (T) of an electromagnetic tracking device. (B) A schematic to illustrate the loading and alignment system. The femur (F) and tibia (T) with the attached load cell (LC) and load ring (LR) are shown. Cables (C) on the left and right were fixed to opposite sides, respectively, of the load ring. The three adjustments of the gantry are also indicated.
Grahic Jump Location
Radiographs of implanted bone anchors and load cell on a rabbit leg. The femoral anchors secured the femur to a mounting bracket and the tibia anchors served to attach the load cell and tracking device receiver (not shown) to the proximal tibia.
Grahic Jump Location
Motion patterns during varus and valgus loading. The mean (±s.d.) primary and secondary motion patterns are shown during varus–valgus loading (n=7).
Grahic Jump Location
Motion patterns during internal and external loading. The mean (±s.d.) primary and secondary motion patterns are shown during internal–external loading (n=7).
Grahic Jump Location
Interval VR-VL laxity. The VR-VL laxity (mean ± s.d.) is compared at flexion angles of 40, 70, and 100 deg. Significant differences were seen as a function of flexion angle (p<0.001).
Grahic Jump Location
Interval INT-EXT laxity. The INT-EXT laxity (mean ± s.d.) is compared at flexion angles of 40, 70, and 100 deg. Significant differences were seen as a function of flexion angle (p<0.001).
Grahic Jump Location
Tibia loads measured during varus and valgus testing. The resultant VR-VL and INT-EXT tibia loads (mean ± s.d.) are shown during varus–valgus testing (n=6). The primary VR-VL loads were observed to be below the target load of ±150 Nmm. The secondary INT-EXT loads were observed to be consistently small throughout flexion.
Grahic Jump Location
Tibia loads measured during internal and external testing. The resultant INT-EXT and VR-VL tibia loads (mean ± s.d.) are shown during internal–external testing (n=6). The primary INT-EXT loads were observed to be close to the target load of ±100 Nmm and fairly consistent throughout flexion. Large secondary varus and valgus moments were observed concurrently with the applied internal and external loads respectively.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In