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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Design and Validation of an Unconstrained Loading System to Measure the Envelope of Motion in the Rabbit Knee Joint

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew D. Milne

Department of Medical Biophysics, Bioengineering Research Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6

J. Robert Giffin

Department of Surgery, Bioengineering Research Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6

David G. Chess, James A. Johnson, Graham J. W. King

Department of Surgery; Department of Medical Biophysics; Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Bioengineering Research Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6

J Biomech Eng 123(4), 347-354 (Mar 13, 2001) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1384877 History: Received December 13, 1998; Revised March 13, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Topics: Motion , Stress , Testing , Knee , Design , Errors
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References

Figures

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(A) The rabbit knee testing system. The device consisting of a femoral mounting bracket, an adjustable loading gantry to center the flexion–extension (F-E) axis of the knee, a cable and deadweight loading system (W), a load cell (LC), and load ring (LR) attached to the tibia. Joint kinematics were measured using the receiver (R) and transmitter (T) of an electromagnetic tracking device. (B) A schematic to illustrate the loading and alignment system. The femur (F) and tibia (T) with the attached load cell (LC) and load ring (LR) are shown. Cables (C) on the left and right were fixed to opposite sides, respectively, of the load ring. The three adjustments of the gantry are also indicated.
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Radiographs of implanted bone anchors and load cell on a rabbit leg. The femoral anchors secured the femur to a mounting bracket and the tibia anchors served to attach the load cell and tracking device receiver (not shown) to the proximal tibia.
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Motion patterns during varus and valgus loading. The mean (±s.d.) primary and secondary motion patterns are shown during varus–valgus loading (n=7).
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Motion patterns during internal and external loading. The mean (±s.d.) primary and secondary motion patterns are shown during internal–external loading (n=7).
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Interval VR-VL laxity. The VR-VL laxity (mean ± s.d.) is compared at flexion angles of 40, 70, and 100 deg. Significant differences were seen as a function of flexion angle (p<0.001).
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Interval INT-EXT laxity. The INT-EXT laxity (mean ± s.d.) is compared at flexion angles of 40, 70, and 100 deg. Significant differences were seen as a function of flexion angle (p<0.001).
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Tibia loads measured during varus and valgus testing. The resultant VR-VL and INT-EXT tibia loads (mean ± s.d.) are shown during varus–valgus testing (n=6). The primary VR-VL loads were observed to be below the target load of ±150 Nmm. The secondary INT-EXT loads were observed to be consistently small throughout flexion.
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Tibia loads measured during internal and external testing. The resultant INT-EXT and VR-VL tibia loads (mean ± s.d.) are shown during internal–external testing (n=6). The primary INT-EXT loads were observed to be close to the target load of ±100 Nmm and fairly consistent throughout flexion. Large secondary varus and valgus moments were observed concurrently with the applied internal and external loads respectively.

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