The Effect of Proximal Artery Flow on the Hemodynamics at the Distal Anastomosis of a Vascular Bypass Graft: Computational Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephanie M. Kute

Departments of Surgery and Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

David A. Vorp

Departments of Surgery, Bioengineering, and Mechanical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

J Biomech Eng 123(3), 277-283 (Jan 29, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1374203 History: Received February 13, 2000; Revised January 29, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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Perspective view of the distal end-to-side anastomosis geometry and body-fitted, structured mesh. The inset shows a cross section of the mesh. Note that the cells are more dense at the anastomosis and along the outer wall of the vessels. Due to the inherent symmetry in the model, only half of the domain is solved with a total of 53,098 cells. Boundary conditions were applied as shown and described further in the text.
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Velocity vectors on the symmetry plane at different axial positions for each flow condition in the proximal artery (prograde, zero, and retrograde). In all cases, the velocity vectors distal to the anastomosis are skewed toward the floor of the artery. The prograde flow condition allows for more flow to exit the distal artery, causing increased velocity magnitude. The retrograde flow condition allows for flow to turn at the anastomosis and proceed upstream. Positions A and B are the sites where secondary flow is plotted in Fig. 3.
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Contour plots of the secondary flow magnitude and streamlines for each imposed flow condition (prograde, zero, and retrograde) at the two axial positions upstream from the anastomosis as shown in Fig. 2: (a) 1.375 diameters and (b) 0.6 diameters. These views are taken as if standing at the end of the proximal artery and looking downstream. Significant secondary flow exists in all cases, most prominently in the retrograde flow case. The secondary flow allows for the formation of a recirculation region on the lateral artery walls in the zero and retrograde flow cases.
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Contour plots of the (a) axial component of WSS, (b) circumferential component of WSS, and (c) magnitude of WSS for each flow case (prograde, zero, retrograde)
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Contour plots of the (a) axial component of wall shear stress gradient (WSSG), (b) circumferential component of WSSG, and (c) magnitude of WSSG for each flow case (prograde, zero, retrograde)
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(a) Comparison of WSS magnitude along the artery floor for the three flow cases (prograde, zero, retrograde). The retrograde flow condition results in an increased WSS proximal to the anastomosis and the prograde flow condition results in increased WSS at the anastomosis. (b) Comparison of WSSG magnitude along the artery floor, at the anastomosis, for the three flow conditions. The retrograde flow condition causes a larger magnitude of WSSG along the anastomosis, which extends farther upstream than in the other cases.
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Calculation of the severity parameter (SP), a quantitative measure of the hemodynamic variation at the anastomosis, for all flow conditions (prograde, zero, retrograde). The SP for the retrograde flow case is 12.1 and 8.1 percent greater than the SP for the prograde and zero flow conditions, respectively.




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