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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Frontal Plane Model of the Lumbar Spine Subjected to a Follower Load: Implications for the Role of Muscles

[+] Author and Article Information
Avinash G. Patwardhan

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Veterans Affairs, Edward Hines, Jr., Hospital, Hines, IL 60141

Kevin P. Meade

Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60606; Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Veterans Affairs, Edward Hines, Jr., Hospital, Hines, IL 60141

Brian Lee

Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Veterans Affairs, Edward Hines, Jr., Hospital, Hines, IL 60141

J Biomech Eng 123(3), 212-217 (Dec 21, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1372699 History: Received July 14, 1999; Revised December 21, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

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Timoshenko, S., and Gere, J., 1961, Theory of Elastic Stability, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Patwardhan,  A. G., Bunch,  W. H., Meade,  K. P., Vanderby,  R., and Knight,  G. W., 1986, “A Biomechanical Analog of Curve Progression and Orthotic Stabilization in Idiopathic Scoliosis,” J. Biomech., 19, pp. 103–117.
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Crisco,  J. J., and Panjabi,  M. M., 1991, “The Intersegmental and Multisegmental Muscles of the Lumbar Spine: A Biomechanical Model Comparing Lateral Stabilizing Potential,” Spine, 16, pp. 793–799.
Lee, B., 1998, “Stability of the Lumbar Spine Subjected to a Follower Load,” M. S. Thesis, The University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Shirazi-Adl,  A., and Parnianpour,  M., 1993, “Nonlinear Response Analysis of the Human Ligamentous Lumbar Spine in Compression,” Spine, 18, pp. 147–158.
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Stokes,  I. A. F., and Gardner-Morse,  M., 1995, “Lumbar Spine Maximum Efforts and Muscle Recruitment Patterns Predicted by a Model With Multijoint Muscles and Joints with Stiffness,” J. Biomech., 28, pp. 173–186.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
The lumbar spine model subjected to gravitational loads and active muscle forces in a laterally flexed posture. The model input parameters included: EI=1.90 Nm2,l1=0.190 m,l2=0.150 m,l3=0.105 m,l4=0.080 m,l5=0.038 m. The initial curve in the frontal plane was defined by a1=0.01 m (see text).
Grahic Jump Location
A schematic of the constraints on muscle forces. The muscle forces (Fi) were constrained so that the path of the internal force resultant (Ri) approximated the tangent to the spinal curve.
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Muscle activation pattern needed to maintain the lumbar spine model under compressive follower loads. The force resultant acting on the spine approximates the tangent to the deformed shape of the spine. (b) Response of the spine model to a compressive vertical load applied at L1 and to a compressive follower load. The lumbar spine model could support substantially larger compressive loads when the load path approximated the tangent to the curve of the lumbar spine.

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