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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Impact Responses of the Flexed Human Knee Using a Deformable Impact Interface

[+] Author and Article Information
Patrick J. Atkinson

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, MI 58504

Roger C. Haut

Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824

J Biomech Eng 123(3), 205-211 (Jan 11, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1372320 History: Received May 18, 2000; Revised January 11, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Typical test setup and load-time trace for the deformable and rigid interface experiments. Either a rigid or deformable impact interface was attached to the front of the load cell.
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Schematics depicting the gross and microscopic injury classification scheme: (1,2,3) depict sagittal sections (the plane used for histological analysis) of the patella showing the typical locations of fractures (A), horizontal (B) occult microfractures, vertical occult microfractures (C), fissures of the articular surface (D). The gross fractures were categorized as follows: patellar fractures were more specifically documented as either transverse (A1) or comminuted (A2), split femoral fractures (E), or “Salter” fractures of the tibial plateau (F).
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Schematic representations of the anterior patella showing typical regions of contact between the impactor and knee for the rigid and deformable impact interfaces for the three flexion angles
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Schematic representations of the retropatellar surface and the femoral condyles showing typical regions of intra-articular contact. These regions and magnitudes of contact area were similar, regardless of impact interface (see Table 1). In some cases the deformable impact interface contacted a portion of the medial femoral condyle at the higher flexion angle. This occurs because the medial condyle becomes more exposed during normal patellar tracking at higher flexion angles.
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Gross photos of the retropatellar surface showing a transverse patellar fracture (A) showing a frank fracture (small arrow) and the faint shadow showing how the fracture plane continues under the cartilage (large arrow). A split fracture of the femoral condyles is shown in (B).

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