Dynamic Measurements of Three-Dimensional Scapular Kinematics: A Validation Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew R. Karduna

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, MCP Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, PA 19102

Phil W. McClure

Department of Physical Therapy, Beaver College, Glenside, PA 19038

Lori A. Michener

Department of Physical Therapy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA 32298

Brian Sennett

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

J Biomech Eng 123(2), 184-190 (Dec 01, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1351892 History: Received November 01, 1998; Revised December 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ludewig,  P. M., and Cook,  T. M., 2000, “Alterations in Shoulder Kinematics and Associated Muscle Activity in People With Symptoms of Shoulder Impingement,” Phys. Ther., 80, pp. 276–291.
Lukasiewicz,  A. C., McClure,  P., Michener,  L., Pratt,  N., and Sennett,  B., 1999, “Comparison of 3-Dimensional Scapular Position and Orientation Between Subjects With and Without Shoulder Impingement,” J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther., 29, pp. 574–83.
Paletta,  G. A., Warner,  J. J. P., Warren,  R. F., Deutsch,  A., and Altchek,  D. W., 1997, “Shoulder Kinematics With Two-Plane X-Ray Evaluation in Patients With Anterior Instability or Rotator Cuff Tearing,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 6, pp. 516–527.
Warner,  J. J. P., Micheli,  L. J., Arslanian,  L. E., Kennedy,  J., and Kennedy,  R., 1992, “Scapulothoracic Motion in Normal Shoulders and Shoulders With Glenohumeral Instability and Impingement Syndrome,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 285, pp. 191–199.
Doody,  S. G., Freedman,  L., and Waterland,  J. C., 1970, “Shoulder Movements During Abduction in the Scapular Plane,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 51, pp. 595–604.
Youdas,  J. W., Carey,  J. R., Garrett,  T. R., and Suman,  V. J., 1994, “Reliability of Goniometric Measurements of Active Arm Elevation in the Scapula Plane Obtained in a Clinical Setting,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 75, pp. 1137–1144.
Freedman,  L., and Munro,  R. R., 1966, “Abduction of the Arm in the Scapular Plane: Scapular and Glenohumeral Movements,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 48A, pp. 1503–1510.
Poppen,  N. K., and Walker,  P. S., 1976, “Normal and Abnormal Motion of the Shoulder,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 58A, pp. 195–201.
de Groot,  J. H., 1999, “The Scapulo-Humeral Rhythm: Effects of 2-D Roentgen Projection,” Clin. Biomech., 14, pp. 63–68.
Högfors,  C., Peterson,  B., Sigholm,  G., and Herberts,  P., 1991, “Biomechanical Model of the Human Shoulder-II. The Shoulder Rhythm,” J. Biomech., 24, pp. 699–709.
Kondo, M., Tazoe, S., and Yamada, M., 1984, “Changes of the Tilting Angle of the Scapula Following Elevation of the Arm,” in: Surgery of the Shoulder, J. E. Bateman and R. P. Welsh, eds., Decker, Philadelphia, pp. 12–16.
Graichen,  H., Stammberger,  T., Bonel,  H., Haubner,  M., Englmeier,  K. H., Reiser,  M., and Eckstein,  F., 2000, “Magnetic Resonance-Based Motion Analysis of the Shoulder During Elevation,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 370, pp. 154–63.
Ludewig,  P. M., Cook,  T. M., and Nawoczenski,  D. A., 1996, “Three-Dimensional Scapular Orientation and Muscle Activity at Selected Positions of Humeral Elevation,” J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther., 24, pp. 57–65.
van der Helm,  F. C. T., and Pronk,  G. M., 1995, “Three-Dimensional Recording and Description of Motions of the Shoulder Mechanism,” J. Biomech. Eng., 117, pp. 27–40.
McQuade,  K. J., Wei,  S. H., and Smidt,  G. L., 1995, “Effects of Local Muscle Fatigue on Three-Dimensional Scapulohumeral Rhythm,” Clin. Biomech., 10, pp. 144–148.
Johnson,  G. R., Stuart,  P. R., and Mitchell,  S., 1993, “A Method for the Measurement of Three-Dimensional Scapular Movement,” Clin. Biomech., 8, pp. 269–273.
Moriwaki,  M., 1992, “Analysis of Three Dimensional Motion of the Scaupula and the Glenohumeral Joint,” J. Jpn. Orthop. Assoc.,66, pp. 675–687.
Meskers,  C. G. M., Vermeulen,  H. M., de Groot,  J. H., van der Helm,  F. C. T., and Rozing,  P. M., 1998, “3D Shoulder Position Measurements Using a Six-Degree-Of-Freedom Electromagnetic Tracking Device,” Clin. Biomech., 13, pp. 280–292.
McQuade,  K. J., and Smidt,  G. L., 1998, “Dynamic Scapulohumeral Rhythm: The Effects of External Resistance During Elevation of the Arm in the Scapular Plane,” J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther., 27, pp. 125–133.
Lundberg,  A., 1996, “On the Use of Bone and Skin Markers in Kinematics Research,” Human Move. Sci.,15, pp. 411–422.
Neptune,  R. R., and Hull,  M. L., 1995, “Accuracy Assessment of Methods for Determining Hip Movement in Seated Cycling,” J. Biomech., 28, pp. 729–732.
Fuller,  J., Liu,  L.-J., Murphy,  M. C., and Mann,  R. W., 1997, “A Comparison of Lower-Extremity Skeletal Kinematics Measured Using Skin- and Pin-Mounted Markers,” Human Move. Sci.,16, pp. 219–242.
Cappozzo,  A., Catani,  F., Leardini,  A., Benedetti,  M. G., and Croce,  U. D., 1996, “Position and Orientation in Space of Bones During Movement: Experimental Artefacts,” Clin. Biomech., 11, pp. 90–100.
Reinschmidt,  C., van der Bogert,  A. J., Nigg,  B. M., Lundberg,  A., and Murphy,  N., 1997, “Effect of Skin Movement on the Analysis of Skeletal Knee Joint Motion During Running,” J. Biomech., 30, pp. 729–732.
Reinschmidt,  C., van der Bogert,  A. J., Lundberg,  A., Nigg,  B. M., Murphy,  N., Stacoff,  A., and Stano,  A., 1997, “Tibiofemoral and Tibiocalcaneal Motion During Walking: External vs. Skelatal Markers” Gait Posture,6, pp. 98–109.
Holden,  J., Orsini,  J., Siegel,  K., Kepple,  T., Gerber,  L., and Stanhope,  S., 1997, “Surface Movement Errors in Shank Kinematics and Knee Kinetics During Gait,” Gait Posture,5, pp. 217–227.
Maslen,  B. A., and Ackland,  T. R., 1994, “Radiographic Study of Skin Displacement Errors in the Foot and Ankle During Standing,” Clin. Biomech., 9, pp. 291–296.
Reinschmidt,  C., van der Bogert,  A. J., Murphy,  N., Lundberg,  A., and Nigg,  B. M., 1997, “Tibiocalcaneal Motion During Running, Measured With External and Bone Markers,” Clin. Biomech., 12, pp. 8–16.
Tranberg,  R., and Karlsson,  D., 1998, “The Relative Skin Movement of the Foot: A 2-D Roentgen Photogrammetry Study,” Clin. Biomech., 13, pp. 71–76.
Rash,  G. S., Belliappa,  P. P., Wachowiak,  M. P., Somia,  N. N., and Gupta,  A., 1999, “A Demonstration of Validity of 3-D Video Motion Analysis Method For Measuring Finger Flexion and Extension,” J. Biomech., 32, pp. 1337–41.
Häggman-Henrikson,  B., Eriksson,  P. O., Nordh,  E., and Zafar,  H., 1998, “Evaluation of Skin- Versus Teeth-Attached Markers in Wireless Optoelectronic Recordings of Chewing Movements in Man,” J. Oral Rehabil., 25, pp. 527–34.
An,  K. N., Jacobsen,  M. C., Berglund,  L. J., and Chao,  E. Y. S., 1988, “Application of a Magnetic Tracking Device to Kinesiologic Studies,” J. Biomech., 21, pp. 613–620.
Sidles, J. A., Garbini, J. L., and Matsen, F. A., III, 1989, “A General-Purpose System for Joint Kinematic Measurements,” 1989 Biomechanics Symposium, P. A. Torzilli, ed., La Jolla, CA, pp. 93–96.
An,  K. N., Browne,  A. O., Korinek,  S., Tanaka,  S., and Morrey,  B. F., 1991, “Three-Dimensional Kinematics of Glenohumeral Elevation,” J. Orthop. Res., 9, pp. 143–149.
Karduna,  A. R., Williams,  G. R., Williams,  J. L., and Iannotti,  J. P., 1996, “Kinematics of the Glenohumeral Joint: Effect of Muscle Forces, Ligamentous Constraints and Articular Geometry,” J. Orthop. Res., 14, pp. 986–993.
van der Helm, F. C. T., 1996, “A Standardized Protocol for Motion Recordings of the Shoulder,” in: Proceedings of the First Conference of the International Shoulder Group, H. E. J. Veeger, F. C. T. van der Helm, and R. M. Rozing, eds., Shaker, St Maartenslaan, pp. 7–12.
Harryman,  D. T., Sidles,  J. A., Harris,  S., and Matsen,  F. A., 1992, “Laxity of the Normal Glenohumeral Joint: A Quantitative In Vivo Assessment,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 1, pp. 66–76.
Koh,  T. J., Grabiner,  M. D., and Brems,  J. J., 1998, “Three-Dmensional In Vivo Kinematics of the Shoulder During Humeral Elevation,” J. Appl. Biochem., 14, pp. 312–326.
Deutsch,  A., Altchek,  D. W., Schwartz,  E., Otis,  J. C., and Warren,  R. F., 1996, “Radiologic Measurement of Superior Displacement of the Humeral Head in the Impingement Syndrome,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 5, pp. 186–193.
Lucchetti,  L., Cappozzo,  A., Cappello,  A., and Croce,  U. D., 1998, “Skin Movement Artifact Assessment and Compensation in the Estimation of Knee-Joint Kinematics,” J. Biomech., 31, pp. 977–984.
Andriacchi,  T. P., Alexander,  E. J., Toney,  M. K., Dyrby,  C., and Sum,  J., 1998, “A Point Cluster Method for In Vivo Motion Analysis: Applied to a Study of Knee Kinematics,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 743–749.
Schmidt,  R., Disselhorst-Klug,  C., Silny,  J., and Rau,  G., 1999, “A Marker-Based Measurement Procedure for Unconstrained Wrist and Elbow Motions,” J. Biomech., 32, pp. 615–21.
van Weeren,  P. R., van den Bogert,  A. J., and Barneveld,  A., 1988, “Quantification of Skin Displacement Near the Carpal, Tarsal and Fetlock Joints of the Walking Horse,” Equine Vet. J., 20, pp. 203–208.
van Weeren,  P. R., van den Bogert,  A. J., and Barneveld,  A., 1990, “Quantification of Skin Displacement in the Proximal Parts of the Limbs of the Walking Horse,” Equine Vet. J. Suppl., 9, pp. 110–118.
van den Bogert,  A. J., van Weeren,  P. R., and Schamhardt,  H. C., 1990, “Correction for Skin Displacement Errors in Movement Analysis of the Horse,” J. Biomech., 23, pp. 97–101.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematic drawing of custom designed scapular tracker. The hinge joint on the base allows it to conform to the subject’s scapular spine. The arm can pivot and translate on the base so that the location of the footpad can be adjusted. The footpad can be raised or lowered and rotate on a ball and socket joint.
Grahic Jump Location
Photographs of bone and skin base receiver locations. (A) Tracker method, (B) acromial method.
Grahic Jump Location
Landmarks and coordinate axes for the global, thoracic, scapular, and humeral reference frames
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of skin and bone based methods during scapular plane elevation. Each data point represents the rms errors of the eight healthy subjects. (A) Posterior tilting, (B) external rotation, (C) upward rotation, (D) upward rotation with a correction factor, (E) clavicular plane, (F) clavicular elevation.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In