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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Simple Shear Testing of Parallel-Fibered Planar Soft Tissues

[+] Author and Article Information
John C. Gardiner, Jeffrey A. Weiss

Department of Bioengineering, The University of Utah, 50 South Central Campus Drive #2480, Salt Lake City, UT 84112

J Biomech Eng 123(2), 170-175 (Dec 01, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1351891 History: Received January 01, 2000; Revised December 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Marsden, J. E., and Hughes, T. J. R., 1983, Mathematical Foundations of Elasticity, Dover, New York.
Anderson,  D. R., Woo,  S. L.-Y., Kwan,  M. K., and Gershuni,  D. H., 1991, “Viscoelastic Shear Properties of the Equine Medial Meniscus,” J. Orthop. Res., 9, No. 4, pp. 550–558.
Zhu,  W., Mow,  V. C., Koob,  T. J., and Eyre,  D. R., 1993, “Viscoelastic Shear Properties of Articular Cartilage and the Effects of Glycosidase Treatments,” J. Orthop. Res., 11, pp. 771–781.
Wilson,  A., Shelton,  F., Chaput,  C., Frank,  C., Butler,  D., and Shrive,  N., 1997, “The Shear Behavior of the Rabbit Medial Collateral Ligament,” Med. Eng. Phys., 19, No. 7, pp. 652–657.
Goertzen,  D. J., Budney,  D. R., and Cinats,  J. G., 1997, “Methodology and Apparatus to Determine Material Properties of the Knee Joint Meniscus,” Med. Eng. Phys., 19, No. 5, pp. 412–419.
Sacks,  M. S., 1999, “A Method for Planar Biaxial Mechanical Testing That Includes In-Plane Shear,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 121, pp. 551–555.
Puso,  M. A., and Weiss,  J. A., 1998, “Finite Element Implementation of Anisotropic Quasilinear Viscoelasticity,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, No. 1, pp. 62–70.
Weiss, J. A., 1994, “A Constitutive Model and Finite Element Representation for Transversely Isotropic Soft Tissues,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
Weiss,  J. A., Maker,  B. N., and Govindjee,  S., 1996, “Finite Element Implementation of Incompressible, Transversely Isotropic Hyperelasticity,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 135, pp. 107–128.
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Maker, B. N., Ferencz, R. M., and Hallquist, J. O., 1990, “NIKE3D: A NonLinear, Implicit, Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code for Solid and Structural Mechanics,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Technical Report, UCRL-MA-105268.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
A—Schematic of simulated simple shear test configuration. Sample is gripped with two clamps and the right clamp is displaced vertically to induce a shear κ=tan(θ), where θ is the angle between the x-axis and the top edge of the tissue. The coordinate axes illustrate the directions used to reference strain components, with the z-axis oriented out of the plane. B—Finite element mesh used for the 12×12 mm geometry. Four elements were used along the z-axis (out-of-plane) direction. Shaded regions indicate the areas of the tissue in the clamps.
Grahic Jump Location
Contours of Green-Lagrange strain and relative volume (V/V0) for sample dimensions of 12×12 mm (top row), 6×12 mm (middle row), and 12×6 mm (bottom row). Note that the entire sample undergoes nearly isochoric deformation regardless of sample dimensions. Clamping prestrain=10 percent, K=1.0e04 MPa, tan(θ)=1/3.
Grahic Jump Location
Regions of homogeneous Green-Lagrange strain distribution for sample dimensions of 12×12 mm (top row), 6×12 mm (middle row), and 12×6 mm (bottom row). Black areas indicate regions of strains that correspond to ±0.005 of the indicated center value. Clamping prestrain=10 percent, K=1.0e04 MPa, tan(θ)=1/3.
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of specimen geometry on predicted Green-Lagrange components of shear (EXY) and normal (EXX) strain, as a function of shear angle applied to the clamps. Clamping prestrain=0 percent, K=1.0e04 MPa.

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