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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Requirements for Mesh Resolution in 3D Computational Hemodynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Sujata Prakash

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

C. Ross Ethier

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M 5S 3G8

J Biomech Eng 123(2), 134-144 (Dec 01, 2000) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1351807 History: Received May 01, 2000; Revised December 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Contours of the normalized wall shear stress magnitude on the outer wall of the RCA. Unlike the case of the shear stress on the inner wall, we notice several significant qualitative differences in the wall shear stress distribution along the outer wall (regions marked A, B, and C).
Grahic Jump Location
Normalized wall shear stress extracted along the curve of intersection of the RCA wall with its “horizontal centerplane”
Grahic Jump Location
Axial velocity profiles at two different axial locations on the RCA model at ReD=500 for adaptively refined mesh series. Data from the coarsest (13,210 nodes) mesh is shown in comparison with that from both two intermediate density meshes (97,920 and 134,221 nodes). All velocities are normalized by the mean inlet velocity. (a) Data extracted at a location 18.3D downstream of the RCA cast origin (50 percent of RCA length) (b) Data extracted at a location 27.45D downstream of the RCA cast origin (75 percent of RCA length).
Grahic Jump Location
Contours of the normalized wall shear stress magnitude on the inner wall of the RCA for adaptively refined mesh series. We notice that there are some minor qualitative differences between the wall shear stress fields obtained for the various meshes in the adaptive sequence.
Grahic Jump Location
Contours of the normalized wall shear stress magnitude on the outer wall of the RCA for adaptively refined mesh series. Notice several qualitative differences between the wall shear stress distribution along the outer wall for the different meshes in the adaptive sequence.
Grahic Jump Location
Normalized wall shear stress extracted along the curve of intersection of the RCA wall and its “horizontal centerplane.” (a) wall shear stress distribution along the inner wall of the RCA (b) wall shear stress distribution along the outer wall of the RCA.
Grahic Jump Location
Normalized error magnitude (L2 norm) in WSS and WSS gradient vs. mesh density for the adaptive and nonadaptive series. See text for description of WSS and WSS gradient calculations. The error was defined to be the difference between the WSS (or WSSG) obtained on the finest adapted mesh (324,973 nodes) and the mesh under consideration. For WSSG, the error for the outer (inner) wall has been normalized by the L2 norm of the WSSG computed on the outer (inner) wall of the finest adaptive mesh. Solid symbols connected by lines are errors on adapted series; hollow symbols without lines are errors on nonadaptive series.
Grahic Jump Location
Contours of the normalized wall shear stress magnitude on the inner wall of the RCA. The normalized wall shear stress is defined as the wall shear stress divided by the shear stress that would exist in Poiseuille flow in a tube of diameter D at the same Re. For most of the RCA length, these magnitudes are not very high, therefore mesh-independence was not very difficult to obtain. Notice, however, that there are several minor qualitative differences between the wall shear stress fields obtained from the three different meshes.
Grahic Jump Location
Axial velocity profiles at two different axial stations on the RCA model at ReD=500, extracted from the nonadaptive mesh series. Refer to text for description of the procedure used to extract the velocity data. Data from the coarsest (57,850 nodes) mesh compared to that from the intermediate density mesh (112,930 nodes) and the finest mesh (159,890 nodes). All velocities are normalized by the mean inlet velocity. (a) Data extracted at a location 18.3D downstream of the RCA cast origin (50 percent of RCA length) (b) Data extracted at a location 27.45D downstream of RCA cast origin (75 percent of RCA length).
Grahic Jump Location
Mesh cross-sections at two locations for the most refined adaptive mesh (223,489 elements). Only visible surface faces of elements intersecting the cutting plane are shown. The appearance of “thin” or “stretched” elements is due to the face being turned obliquely to the viewing plane. In this representation, no mid-side nodes are shown, and corner nodes are connected by straight-line segments, giving the outer boundary a more discrete contour than is present in practice.
Grahic Jump Location
Sequence of adaptively refined finite element meshes used in the present AMR study. The outer wall of the RCA is visible in this view.
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of the average internodal spacing as a function of mesh size (number of nodes) for the sequence of adaptively refined meshes. havg is nondimensionalized by the inlet radius.
Grahic Jump Location
Sequence of nonadapted meshes of successively higher density. RCA cast origin is at location marked “0,” and the cast ends at the location marked “1.0.”
Grahic Jump Location
Different views of the RCA flow model. Panel A: View in the medial plane. RCA cast origin is at location marked “0.” A 2.5D long inlet section (not completely visible) is placed upstream of the cast origin. Panel B: The frontal projection of Panel A, showing the primary curvature. Panel C: The ventral projection of the view in panel A, showing the relative magnitude of the secondary (out-of-plane) curvature.

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