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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Dynamic Behavior of Lung Surfactant

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Morris, R. D. Kamm, M. Johnson

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

E. P. Ingenito, L. Mark

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115

J Biomech Eng 123(1), 106-113 (Aug 24, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1336146 History: Received August 31, 1999; Revised August 24, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

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Schürch,  S., Schurch,  D., Curstedt,  T., and Robertson,  B., 1994, “Surface Activity of Lipid Extract Surfactant in Relation to Film Area Compression and Collapse,” J. Appl. Physiol., 77, pp. 974–986.
Wang,  Z., Hall,  S. B., and Notter,  R. H., 1995, “Dynamic Surface Activity of Films of Lung Surfactant Phospholipids, Hydrophobic Proteins, and Neutral Lipids,” J. Lipid Res., 36, pp. 1283–1293.
Enhorning,  G., 1977, “Pulsating Bubble Technique for Evaluating Pulmonary Surfactant,” J. Appl. Physiol., 43, pp. 198–203.
Schürch,  S., Bachofen,  H., Goerke,  J., and Possmayer,  F., 1989, “A Captive Bubble Method Reproduces the in Situ Behavior of Lung Surfactant Monolayers,” J. Appl. Physiol., 67, pp. 2389–2396.
Otis,  D. R., Ingenito,  E. P., Kamm,  R. D., and Johnson,  M., 1994, “Dynamic Surface Tension of Surfactant TA: Experiments and Theory,” J. Appl. Physiol., 77, pp. 2681–2688.
Ingenito,  E. P., Mark,  L., Morris,  J., Espinosa,  F. F., Kamm,  R. D., and Johnson,  M., 1999, “Biophysical Characterization and Modeling of Lung Surfactant Components,” J. Appl. Physiol., 86, pp. 1702–1714.
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Morris, J., 1998, “Characterization of the Dynamic Behavior of Lung Surfactant and Its Components,” Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of steady-state surface tension γ versus bubble area A loop demonstrating surfactant transfer mechanisms for each loop segment: kinetic adsorption (between G and B along top of loop) or desorption (segments FG and BC) for γ>γ* (regime i), insoluble monolayer for γmin<γ<γ* (segments CD and EF) (regime ii), and film collapse as the area is lowered beyond the point where γmin is reached (between D and E) (regime iii). The inward and outward arrows represent adsorption/desorption/film-collapse of surfactant by the monolayer. Loop direction is clockwise.
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Surface tension versus time during constant-area adsorption of surfactant to freshly formed bubble. (A) Experiment data 3; (B) model predictions with D=10−6 cm2/s and K1=6×105 ml/(g⋅min).
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Dynamic surface tension–interfacial area for first few cycles for Curosurf (porcine lipid extract) at 1 mg/ml and 20–30 cycles/min. (A–C) Experimental loops 3 are shown for cycle 1 (A), cycle 2 (B), and cycle 20 (C); open circles denote compression; filled circles, expansion. (D–F) Diffusional model predictions for D=10−9 cm2/s and K1=0.07×105 ml/(g⋅min); other parameters as specified in the text (25 cycles/min).
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Constant-area adsorption of 1 mg/ml Curosurf at maximum bubble area after consecutive dynamic cycles (same condition as for Fig. 3). (A) Experiment data 3 with cycling stopped after 1 cycle (open circles), 20 cycles (open triangles), or 50 cycles (filled triangles); (B) model predictions with D=10−9 cm2/s and K1=0.07×105 ml/(g⋅min) for these same conditions.
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Values of K1 (ml/g⋅min) and D (cm2 /s) necessary to match film-collapse area of Fig. 3(B) (filled circles) or to match time-constant for adsorption shown in Fig. 4(A) (open squares)
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Predictions for surfactant concentration in the subsurface region immediately underlying the interface, C(0,t), for the dynamic cycling described in Fig. 3
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Predictions of surfactant concentration profile in the liquid at maximum bubble area after 1 (solid), 20 (dashed), or 50 (dotted) cycles for the dynamic cycling described in Fig. 3
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Steady-state surface tension versus interfacial area loops for calf lung surfactant measured during pulsating bubble surfactometry. (A, D) 1 mg/ml, (B, E) 0.1 mg/ml, (C, F) 0.01 mg/ml; solid: 1 cycle/min, dashed: 20 cycles/min, dotted: 100 cycles/min. (A–C) Experimental data 8; (D–F) model predictions with K1=6×105 ml/(g⋅min) and D=∞ (adsorption-limited model) and other parameters as described in text.
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Model prediction for steady-state surface tension versus interfacial area loops for calf lung surfactant measured during pulsating bubble surfactometry; K1=6×105. (A, D) 1 mg/ml, (B, E) 0.1 mg/ml, (C, F) 0.01 mg/ml; solid: 1 cycle/min, dashed: 20 cycles/min, dotted: 100 cycles/min. (A–C): D=1×10−6 cm2/s; (D–F): D=1×10−9 cm2/s; other parameters as described in text.
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Predictions for the surfactant concentration in the subsurface region immediately underlying the interface, C(0,t), for the dynamic cycling described in Fig. 9(A) at 20 cycles/min
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Experimental data from Ingenito et al. 8 showing steady-state surface tension as a function of interfacial area for reconstituted surfactant at a bulk concentration of 0.1 mg/ml for 1 cycle/min (solid) and 20 cycles/min (dot-dashed). Pseudo-film collapse behavior is seen during the compression phase of the 1 cycle/min loop.
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Steady-state diffusional model predictions of dynamic surface tension as a function of interfacial area at 20 cycles/min at a bulk surfactant concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. K1/K2 held constant; other parameters as indicated in the text.

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