Computer Simulation of Intraventricular Flow and Pressure Gradients During Diastole

[+] Author and Article Information
J. A. Vierendeels, K. Riemslagh, E. Dick

Department of Flow, Heat, and Combustion Mechanics, Institute Biomedical Technology, Ghent University, St.-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent, Belgium

P. R. Verdonck

Hydraulics Laboratory, Institute Biomedical Technology, Ghent University, St.-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent, Belgium

J Biomech Eng 122(6), 667-674 (Jul 09, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1318941 History: Received May 18, 1999; Revised July 09, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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Color M-mode echocardiogram (here grayscale) derived from a two-dimensional axisymmetric flow simulation. Along the horizontal axis the time evolution is shown. The vertical axis represents the distance in the ventricle along the centerline. The bottom corresponds with the base and the top with the apex. Velocities along the symmetry axis are color coded. Both the early and atrial filling wave can be seen, the initial flow phase with blood moving simultaneously in the ventricle is denoted as I, the propagation of the early filling wave is denoted as II. Left: reference calculation. Right: calculation with same mitral inflow pattern, but higher LV stiffness (Estop=8.85 kPa) and thus higher atrial pressure at opening of the mitral valve (25 mmHg).
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Control volume for heart wall
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Discretization of the ventricle with corresponding boundary discretization
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Electric analogy for the circulation 18. R2 is a quadratic resistance.
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Discretization of two-dimensional axisymmetric elastic tube
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Flow calculation in two-dimensional axisymmetric elastic tube, no reflection at outlet. Velocity (top) and pressure (bottom) profiles at inlet, middle, and outlet of tube.
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Flow patterns and isobars in the LV during filling
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Top: Velocity profile at mitral valve. Middle: Computed pressure profiles at mitral valve (base) and apex with inflow (a: apex, b: base) and without inflow (relaxation without filling, curve c). Bottom: Pressure profiles at mitral valve and apex obtained by subtraction of curve c from curves a and b (a: apex, b: base). For both the E-and the A-wave, there is first a pressure rise at the base (see arrows) and then at the apex.
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Measured intraventricular pressure waveforms 2, a: apex, b: base




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