Head Injury in Facial Impact—A Finite Element Analysis of Helmet Chin Bar Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Chih-Han Chang, Li-Tung Chang, Guan-Liang Chang

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Shyh-Chour Huang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Chiou-Hua Wang

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

J Biomech Eng 122(6), 640-646 (Jul 10, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1318905 History: Received April 28, 1999; Revised July 10, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Watson,  G. S., Zador,  P. L., and Wilks,  A., 1980, “The Repeal of Helmet Use Laws and Increased Motorcyclist Mortality in the United States: 1975–1978,” American J. Public Health, 70, pp. 579–585.
McSwain,  N. E., and Petrucelli,  E., 1984, “Medical Consequences of Motorcycle Helmet Nonusage,” J. Trauma, 24, pp. 233–236.
Tsai,  Y. J., Wang,  J. D., and Huang,  W. F., 1995, “Case-Control Study of the Effectiveness of Different Types of Helmets for the Prevention of Head Injuries Among Motorcycle Riders in Taipei, Taiwan,” Am. J. Epidemiol., 142, pp. 974–981.
FMVSS 218, 1992, “Motorcycle Helmets,” Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Washington.
Snell Memorial Foundation, 1995, “Standard for Protective Headgear,” North Highlands, CA.
British Standard 6658, 1985, “Protective Helmets for Vehicle Users,” British Standard Institution, London.
E.C.E. R 22, 1995, “Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Protective Helmets and of Their Visors for Drivers and Passengers of Motorcycles and Mopeds,” Geneva.
JIS T 8133, 1994, “Protective Helmets for Vehicle Users,” Japanese Industrial Standard, Tokyo.
Hurt, H. H., Jr., Ouellet, J. V., and Thom, D. R., 1981, “Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification of Countermeasures,” U.S. Department Transportation Report DOT HS-805 862.
Matzsch,  T., and Karlsson,  B., 1986, “Moped and Motorcycle Accidents— Similarities and Discrepancies,” J. Trauma, 26, pp. 538–543.
Sood,  S., 1988, “Survey of Factors Influencing Injury Among Riders Involved in Motorized Two-Wheeler Accidents in India: A Prospective Study of 302 Cases,” J. Trauma, 28, pp. 530–534.
Bachulis,  B. L., Sangster,  W., Gorrell,  G. W., and Long,  W. B., 1988, “Patterns of Injury in Helmeted and Nonhelmeted Motorcyclists,” Am. J. Surg., 155, pp. 708–711.
Johnson,  R. M., McCarthy,  M. C., Miller,  S. F., and Peoples,  J. B., 1995, “Craniofacial Trauma in Injured Motorcyclists: the Impact of Helmet Usage,” J. Trauma, 38, pp. 876–878.
Lee,  M. C., Chiu,  W. T., Chang,  L. T., Liu,  S. C., and Lin,  S. H., 1995, “Craniofacial Injuries in Unhelmeted Riders of Motorbikes,” Injury, 26, pp. 467–470.
Gopalakrishna,  G., Peak-Asa,  C., and Kraus,  J. F., 1998, “Epidemiologic Features of Facial Injuries Among Motorcyclists,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, 32, pp. 425–430.
Kingsbury, H. B., and Rohr, P. R., 1981, “Structure Characteristics of Motorcycle Helmets,” SAE Paper No. 810372.
Gale,  A., and Mills,  N. J., 1985, “Effect of Polystyrene Foam Liner Density on Motorcycle Helmet Shock Absorption,” Plast. Rubber Proc. Appl., 5, pp. 101–108.
Mills,  N. J., and Gilchrist,  A., 1991, “The Effectiveness of Foams in Bicycle and Motorcycle Helmets,” Accident Anal. Prev., 23, pp. 153–163.
Gilchrist,  A., and Mills,  N. J., 1994, “Impact Deformation of ABS and GRP Motorcycle Helmet Shells,” Plast. Rubber Proc. Appl., 21, pp. 141–150.
Gilchrist,  A., and Mills,  N. J., 1994, “Modelling of the Impact Response of Motorcycle Helmets,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 15, pp. 201–217.
Yettram,  A. L., Godfrey,  N. P. M., and Chinn,  B. P., 1994, “Materials for Motorcycle Crash Helmets—A Finite Element Parametric Study,” Plast. Rubber Proc. Appl., 22, pp. 215–221.
Vaughan,  R. G., 1977, “Motorcycle Helmets and Facial Injuries,” Med. J. Aust., 29, pp. 125–127.
Cannell,  H., King,  J. B., and Winch,  R. D., 1982, “Head and Facial Injuries After Low-Speed Motor-Cycle Accidents,” Br. J. Oral Surg., 20, pp. 183–191.
Cooter,  R. D., David,  D. J., McLean,  A. J., and Simpson,  D. A., 1988, “Helmet-Induced Skull Base Fracture in a Motorcyclist,” Lancet, 16, pp. 84–85.
Cooter,  R. D., 1990, “Computed Tomography in the Assessment of Protective Helmet Deformation,” J. Trauma, 30, pp. 55–68.
Otte, D., 1991, “Technical Demands on Safety in the Design of Crash Helmets for Biomechanical Analysis of Real Accident Situations,” Proc. 35th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Diego, CA, pp. 335–349.
Chang,  L. T., Chang,  C. H., and Chang,  G. L., 1999, “Experimental Evaluation of Chin Bar on Head Injury in Facial Impact,” JSME Int. J., Ser. A, 42, pp. 294–300.
Versace, J., 1971, “A Review of the Severity Index,” Proc. 15th Stapp Car Crash Conference, New York.
Hallquist, J. O., “User’s Manual for LS-DYNA3D LSTC Lab.,” Version 940, USA, 1997.
Waterman, N. A., and Ashby, M. F., 1997, The Materials Selector, Chapman and Hall, London.
FMVSS 208, 1993, “Occupant Crash Protection,” Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Washington.
Simpson,  D. A., Blumbergs,  P. C., Cooter,  R. D., Kilminster,  M., McLean,  A. J., and Scott,  G., 1989, “Pontomedullary Tears and Other Gross Brainstem Injuries After Vehicular Accidents,” J. Trauma, 29, pp. 1519–1525.


Grahic Jump Location
Main components of chin bar
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Experimental setup of Snell and British Standard tests; (b) experimental setup of helmet drop test
Grahic Jump Location
Finite element mesh: (a) cross-sectional view, (b) reference to top and lateral portions
Grahic Jump Location
Mechanical simulations of expanded polystyrene foam liners with three different densities based on Yettram’s impact experiment: (a) 24, (b) 44, and (c) 57 kg/m3
Grahic Jump Location
Acceleration-time curves of the headform in the drop test at an impact energy of 88 J
Grahic Jump Location
Acceleration-time curves of the headform with different polystyrene liner densities at an impact energy of 88 J (HDPE shell)
Grahic Jump Location
Progression of deformation from the transverse view; GRP shell with a liner density of 44 kg/m3
Grahic Jump Location
Progression of deformation from the transverse view; HDPE shell with a liner density of 44 kg/m3
Grahic Jump Location
Acceleration-time curves of the headform with different shell materials at an impact energy of 88 J (liner density 44 kg/m3)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In