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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Geometric and Mechanical Properties of Human Cervical Spine Ligaments

[+] Author and Article Information
Narayan Yoganandan, Srirangam Kumaresan, Frank A. Pintar

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53226

J Biomech Eng 122(6), 623-629 (Aug 10, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1322034 History: Received March 23, 1999; Revised August 10, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Yoganandan,  N., Myklebust,  J. B., Ray,  G., and Sances,  A., 1987, “Mathematical and Finite Element Analysis of Spinal Injuries,” CRC Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 15, pp. 29–93.
Yoganandan,  N., Kumaresan,  S., Voo,  L., and Pintar,  F., 1996, “Finite Element Applications in Human Cervical Spine Modeling,” Spine, 21, pp. 1824–1834.
Dumas,  G. A., Beaudoin,  L., and Drouin,  G., 1987, “In Situ Mechanical Behavior of Posterior Spinal Ligaments in the Lumbar Region. An in Vitro Study,” J. Biomech., 20, pp. 301–310.
Chazal,  J., Tanguy,  A., and Bourges,  M., 1985, “Biomechanical Properties of Spinal Ligaments and a Histological Study of the Supraspinal Ligament in Traction,” J. Biomech., 18, pp. 167–176.
Myklebust,  J. B., Pintar,  F. A., Yoganandan,  N., Cusick,  J. F., Maiman,  D. J., Myers,  T., and Sances,  A., 1988, “Tensile Strength of Spinal Ligaments,” Spine, 13, pp. 526–531.
Neumann,  P., Keller,  T. S., Ekstrom,  L., Perry,  L., and Hannson,  T. H., 1992, “Mechanical Properties of the Human Lumbar Anterior Longitudinal Ligament,” J. Biomech., 25, pp. 1185–1194.
Gilbertson,  L. G., Goel,  V. K., Kong,  W. Z., and Clausen,  J. D., 1995, “Finite Element Methods in Spine Biomechanics Research,” CRC Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 23, pp. 411–473.
Clausen, J. D., 1996, “Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Cervical Spine Biomechanics: Effects of Injury and Stabilization,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
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Kumaresan,  S., Yoganandan,  N., Pintar,  F., Voo,  L., Cusick,  J., and Larson,  S., 1997, “Finite Element Modeling of Cervical Laminectomy With Graded Facetectomy,” J. Spinal Disord., 10, pp. 40–47.
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Pintar,  F. A., Yoganandan,  N., Myers,  T., Elhagediab,  A., and Sances,  A., 1992, “Biomechanical Properties of Human Lumbar Spine Ligaments,” J. Biomech., 25, pp. 1351–1356.
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Yoganandan, N., Pintar, F. A., Larson, S. J., and Sances, A., Jr., eds., 1998, Frontiers in Head and Neck Trauma: Clinical and Biomechanical, IOS Press, The Netherlands.
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Yoganandan,  N., Maiman,  D. J., Pintar,  F. A., Ray,  G., Myklebust,  J. B., Sances,  A., and Larson,  S. J., 1988, “Microtrauma in the Lumbar Spine: a Cause of Low Back Pain,” Neurosurgery, 23, pp. 162–168.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic illustrating the length definitions used for the various ligaments. The schematic was obtained by tracing the actual cryomicrotome section, and lines were drawn to describe the lengths. The anterior (ALL) and posterior (PLL) longitudinal ligaments were defined from the midheight of the inferior vertebral body to the midheight of the superior body. The joint capsules (JC) were defined from the superior tip of the cephalad facet articulation to the inferior tip of the caudal facet articulation. This procedure was adopted since the capsular ligament and joint contribute to the strength of the joint capsule. The ligamentum flavum (LF) and interspinous (ISL) ligaments were defined from the superior points of attachment to the corresponding inferior points of attachment. In cases such as the ISL and LF where attachments exist at several locations along the bone, several measurements were taken and averaged to obtain the length of the ligament. The schematic for both of these ligaments illustrates what would be the final “average” length.
Grahic Jump Location
Sagittal cryosection image illustrating the various ligaments: anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL), posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL), and ligamentum flavum (LF)
Grahic Jump Location
Axial cryosection image illustrating the various ligaments: anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL), posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL), joint capsule (JC), ligamentum flavum (LF), and interspinous ligament (ISL)
Grahic Jump Location
Force-deformation properties of the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, joint capsule, ligamentum flavum, and interspinous ligament for the C2–C5 and C5–T1 groups

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