In Vitro Forces in the Normal and Cruciate-Deficient Knee During Simulated Squatting Motion

[+] Author and Article Information
R. Singerman, J. Berilla, M. Archdeacon, A. Peyser

Orthopaedic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106

J Biomech Eng 121(2), 234-242 (Apr 01, 1999) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2835109 History: Received March 13, 1997; Revised November 02, 1998; Online January 23, 2008


Three orthogonal components of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral forces were measured simultaneously for knees with intact cruciate ligaments (nine knees), following anterior cruciate ligament resection (six knees), and subsequent posterior cruciate ligament resection (six knees). The knees were loaded using an experimental protocol that modeled static double-leg squat. The mean compressive tibial force increased with flexion angle. The mean anteroposterior tibial shear force acted posteriorly on the tibia below 50 deg flexion and anteriorly above 55 deg. Mediolateral shear forces were low compared to the other force components and tended to be directed medially on both the patella and tibia. The mean value of the ratio of the resultant tibial force divided by the quadriceps force decreased with increasing flexion angle and was between 0.6 and 0.7 above 70 deg flexion. The mean value of the ratio of the resultant tibiofemoral contact force divided by the resultant patellofemoral contact force decreased with increasing flexion and was between 0.8 and 1.0 above 55 deg flexion. Cruciate ligament resection resulted in no significant changes in the patellar contact forces. Following resection of the anterior cruciate ligament, the tibial anteroposterior shear force was directed anteriorly over all flexion angles tested. Subsequent resection of the posterior cruciate ligament resulted in an approximately 10 percent increase in the quadriceps tendon and tibial compressive force.

Copyright © 1999 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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